科学美国人(翻译):动物们喜欢平静的交通环境 2020.7.3

cathy0301 2020-07-12 602 阅读
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Animals Appreciate Recent Traffic Lull

动物们喜欢平静的交通环境

Don’t worry about why the chicken crossed the road—the bigger question is whether it’ll make it at all. Every year, millions of animals get killed by vehicles in the U.S. But that road risk has dropped because of the COVID pandemic.

不要担心这只鸡为什么要过马路——更大的问题是它会不会成功。在美国,每年有数以百万计的动物被车辆撞死,但由于COVID的流行,道路风险已经下降。

“We’re aware of negative impacts on the economy, family relations. I’m sitting in my living room and I don’t see as much of my family as I normally would. So there’s a lot of negative impacts. But the positive impacts are becoming more clear. And that could really change the discussion after the pandemic—change some of our assumptions about how much driving we should do if we want to protect nature, wildlife, air quality, climate change and so forth.”

“我们意识到了这对经济和家庭关系的负面影响。我坐在客厅里,不像往常那样经常见到家人。所以有很多负面影响。但积极的影响正变得越来越明显。这可能会真正改变大流行后的讨论——改变我们关于如果我们想保护自然、野生动物、空气质量、气候变化等我们应该多开车的一些假设。”

Fraser Shilling, co-director of the Road Ecology Center at the University of California, Davis. When officials began issuing stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of COVID-19, Shilling and his colleagues quickly realized they were witnessing a novel experiment: what happens when we all start driving way less?

弗雷泽·希林是加州大学戴维斯分校道路生态中心的副主任。当官员们开始发布居家命令以减缓COVID-19的传播时,希林和他的同事们很快意识到,他们正在目睹一场新的实验:当我们都开始减少开车时,会发生什么?

The answer is a lot of things, including fewer accidents and lower greenhouse gas emissions from cars. In their latest report, the researchers found that driving less has also led to a dramatic decrease in road kills in three states for which they had long-term data: Idaho, Maine and California. [Tricia Nguyen et al, Special Report 4: Impact of COVID-19 Mitigation on Wildlife-Vehicle Conflict]

“It’s actually the largest conservation action that the U.S. has ever taken, as far as I’m aware, since creation of the national parks.”

答案有很多,包括更少的事故和更低的汽车温室气体排放。在他们最新的报告中,研究人员发现,在他们有长期数据的三个州,即爱达荷州、缅因州和加利福尼亚州,少开车也使道路死亡人数大幅减少。“据我所知,这实际上是美国自建立国家公园以来所采取的最大的保护行动。”

The team documented about a third fewer collisions with deer, elk, moose and other large mammals in the four weeks following shutdowns. If such a slowdown persisted for a year, 27,000 large animals would be saved in just those three states.

研究小组的记录显示,在汽车关闭后的四周内,与鹿、麋鹿、驼鹿和其他大型哺乳动物的碰撞减少了三分之一。如果这种减缓持续一年,仅在这三个州就可以挽救27000只大型动物。

In California, the researchers also looked specifically at mountain lions. Some populations in urban areas are at risk of local extinction, and vehicles are one of the top killers. However, in recent months, traffic deaths of mountain lions have dropped by 58 percent, revealing an important clue about how to save them.

在加利福尼亚,研究人员还专门研究了美洲狮。城市地区的一些人口正面临着局部灭绝的危险,而汽车就是最大的杀手之一。然而,近几个月来,美洲狮在交通事故中的死亡人数下降了58%,这也为如何拯救美洲狮提供了重要线索。

“Well, to keep them from going extinct or to recover them, we need to protect them from traffic. And that means we need to build stuff. We need to put in fencing along highways and crossing structures over the highways. And that’s a big deal.”People are now returning to the roads as stay-at-home orders are lifted. But Shilling hopes some of the lessons might stick.

“为了防止它们灭绝或者恢复它们的种群,我们需要保护它们不受流量的影响。这意味着我们需要建造一些东西。我们需要在高速公路沿线和高速公路上的交叉构筑物上设置围栏。这是一件大事。他说:“由于禁止外出的命令取消了,人们现在又回到了公路上。但是希林希望一些教训能够被人们铭记。

“I think we can grow from this. Having less impact on wildlife—everybody loves wildlife, you know—and if we can find a way to not kill them, it seems like everybody can line up behind that.”

“我认为我们可以从中成长。减少对野生动物的影响——你知道,每个人都喜欢野生动物——如果我们能找到一种不杀死它们的方法,似乎每个人都能支持它。”

—Julia Rosen

—来自Julia Rosen


Animals Appreciate Recent Traffic Lull

动物们喜欢平静的交通环境

Don’t worry about why the chicken crossed the road—the bigger question is whether it’ll make it at all. Every year, millions of animals get killed by vehicles in the U.S. But that road risk has dropped because of the COVID pandemic.

不要担心这只鸡为什么要过马路——更大的问题是它会不会成功。在美国,每年有数以百万计的动物被车辆撞死,但由于COVID的流行,道路风险已经下降。

“We’re aware of negative impacts on the economy, family relations. I’m sitting in my living room and I don’t see as much of my family as I normally would. So there’s a lot of negative impacts. But the positive impacts are becoming more clear. And that could really change the discussion after the pandemic—change some of our assumptions about how much driving we should do if we want to protect nature, wildlife, air quality, climate change and so forth.”

“我们意识到了这对经济和家庭关系的负面影响。我坐在客厅里,不像往常那样经常见到家人。所以有很多负面影响。但积极的影响正变得越来越明显。这可能会真正改变大流行后的讨论——改变我们关于如果我们想保护自然、野生动物、空气质量、气候变化等我们应该多开车的一些假设。”

Fraser Shilling, co-director of the Road Ecology Center at the University of California, Davis. When officials began issuing stay-at-home orders to slow the spread of COVID-19, Shilling and his colleagues quickly realized they were witnessing a novel experiment: what happens when we all start driving way less?

弗雷泽·希林是加州大学戴维斯分校道路生态中心的副主任。当官员们开始发布居家命令以减缓COVID-19的传播时,希林和他的同事们很快意识到,他们正在目睹一场新的实验:当我们都开始减少开车时,会发生什么?

The answer is a lot of things, including fewer accidents and lower greenhouse gas emissions from cars. In their latest report, the researchers found that driving less has also led to a dramatic decrease in road kills in three states for which they had long-term data: Idaho, Maine and California. [Tricia Nguyen et al, Special Report 4: Impact of COVID-19 Mitigation on Wildlife-Vehicle Conflict]

“It’s actually the largest conservation action that the U.S. has ever taken, as far as I’m aware, since creation of the national parks.”

答案有很多,包括更少的事故和更低的汽车温室气体排放。在他们最新的报告中,研究人员发现,在他们有长期数据的三个州,即爱达荷州、缅因州和加利福尼亚州,少开车也使道路死亡人数大幅减少。“据我所知,这实际上是美国自建立国家公园以来所采取的最大的保护行动。”

The team documented about a third fewer collisions with deer, elk, moose and other large mammals in the four weeks following shutdowns. If such a slowdown persisted for a year, 27,000 large animals would be saved in just those three states.

研究小组的记录显示,在汽车关闭后的四周内,与鹿、麋鹿、驼鹿和其他大型哺乳动物的碰撞减少了三分之一。如果这种减缓持续一年,仅在这三个州就可以挽救27000只大型动物。

In California, the researchers also looked specifically at mountain lions. Some populations in urban areas are at risk of local extinction, and vehicles are one of the top killers. However, in recent months, traffic deaths of mountain lions have dropped by 58 percent, revealing an important clue about how to save them.

在加利福尼亚,研究人员还专门研究了美洲狮。城市地区的一些人口正面临着局部灭绝的危险,而汽车就是最大的杀手之一。然而,近几个月来,美洲狮在交通事故中的死亡人数下降了58%,这也为如何拯救美洲狮提供了重要线索。

“Well, to keep them from going extinct or to recover them, we need to protect them from traffic. And that means we need to build stuff. We need to put in fencing along highways and crossing structures over the highways. And that’s a big deal.”People are now returning to the roads as stay-at-home orders are lifted. But Shilling hopes some of the lessons might stick.

“为了防止它们灭绝或者恢复它们的种群,我们需要保护它们不受流量的影响。这意味着我们需要建造一些东西。我们需要在高速公路沿线和高速公路上的交叉构筑物上设置围栏。这是一件大事。他说:“由于禁止外出的命令取消了,人们现在又回到了公路上。但是希林希望一些教训能够被人们铭记。

“I think we can grow from this. Having less impact on wildlife—everybody loves wildlife, you know—and if we can find a way to not kill them, it seems like everybody can line up behind that.”

“我认为我们可以从中成长。减少对野生动物的影响——你知道,每个人都喜欢野生动物——如果我们能找到一种不杀死它们的方法,似乎每个人都能支持它。”

—Julia Rosen

—来自Julia Rosen


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