科学美国人(翻译):宠物猫到底该怎么养?2020.05.09

cathy0301 2020-05-15 885 阅读
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Domestic cats that live or go outside kill lots of wild animals. Recent studies find that outdoor cats in North America take out between ten and thirty billion birds and mammals each year.

生活或外出的家猫会杀死很多野生动物。最近的研究发现,北美的户外猫每年杀死100亿到300亿只鸟类和哺乳动物。

Still, it hasn’t been clear what kind of an impact the world's 600 million pet cats have on wildlife populations—and whether that impact poses a threat to biodiversity conservation.

然而,目前还不清楚世界上6亿只宠物猫对野生动物种群产生了怎样的影响,也不清楚这种影响是否会威胁生物多样性。

"Anyone who has a cat sees their cats bring animals home. And the question is, well, does it matter...and especially we wanted to know…where are the cats actually hunting? Are they hunting in their backyards or are they going out into the nature preserves?"

“任何养猫的人都会看到他们的猫把动物带回家。问题是,这重要吗?我们特别想知道,猫到底在哪里捕猎?它们是在自家后院打猎呢,还是去自然保护区?”

North Carolina State University zoologist Roland Kays.

北卡罗来纳州立大学的动物学家罗兰·凯斯说道。

Together with colleagues in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand, Kays distributed small GPS trackers to citizen scientist cat owners. They attached the trackers to their cats' collars. In all, more than 900 pet cats were tracked this way, all of which were routinely allowed to roam freely outside.

凯斯与英国、澳大利亚和新西兰的同事一起,把小型GPS追踪器分发给养猫的公民。他们把追踪器系在猫的项圈上。通过这种方式,来追踪900多只在户外自由活动的宠物猫。

Some cats were true explorers. One British cat called Max walked almost two kilometers back and forth along a road between two neighboring villages—twice! But the majority were homebodies, rarely straying more than a hundred meters from home. In other words, they used their own backyards, plus those of a few neighbors, as their hunting grounds. The findings are in the journal Animal Conservation.

有些猫是真正的探险家。一只名叫Max的英国猫在两个相邻村庄之间的路上来回走了近两公里——两次!但大多数猫都是“宅男”,很少在离家一百米以外的地方游荡。换句话说,它们用家里的后院和一些邻居的后院,作为狩猎场。这项研究结果发表在《动物保护》杂志上。

"We were able to put this into kind of a currency, into a value of how many prey animals does a pet cat kill per hectare, sort of per area, per year? And that's something we can also estimate for wild predators. So we were able to estimate this for a wild cat called the jungle cat, which is about the same size. And they kill a lot more per cat because they have to hunt to get everything that they eat, whereas the pet cats get their food bowl. But they hunt over a massive area, compared to the pet cats."

我们可以把它转换成一种货币,一种价值­——宠物猫每年每公顷杀死多少猎物?这也是我们对野生捕食者的估计。我们估算出一种叫做丛林猫的体型,它和宠物猫体型差不多大。但每只丛林猫杀死的动物更多,因为它们必须捕猎才能得到食物。但与宠物猫相比,丛林猫捕猎的范围很大。”

And in some places, including California, Florida, Australia, and elsewhere, cats were an important threat to some species that are already in trouble.

在一些地方,如加利福尼亚、佛罗里达、澳大利亚和其他地方,猫咪已经开始威胁部分陷入困境的物种。

"On one hand, it’s kind of good news that the cats aren't going out further abroad, but it’s bad news that they're quite likely to have an impact on animals they share space with near their houses."

“一方面,这是一种好消息,猫不会去更远的地方,但这也是一个坏消息,因为它们很可影响离自己家很近、共享空间的动物。

With so much killing concentrated around people's houses, the positive impacts of urban wildlife—like the beauty of songbirds, or the way small lizards can control insect pests—could get washed away in precisely the areas where those benefits are most appreciated. So, when conservationists implore cat owners to keep their pets indoors, scientific evidence agrees.

随着房子周围的杀戮行为增多,城市野生动物的积极影响——比如美丽的鸣禽、小蜥蜴控制捕捉害虫的方式——都可能受到冲击,而这些都是人们最欣赏的。因此,当自然资源保护主义者恳求猫主人把宠物养在室内时,科学证据也同意这一观点。


Domestic cats that live or go outside kill lots of wild animals. Recent studies find that outdoor cats in North America take out between ten and thirty billion birds and mammals each year.

生活或外出的家猫会杀死很多野生动物。最近的研究发现,北美的户外猫每年杀死100亿到300亿只鸟类和哺乳动物。

Still, it hasn’t been clear what kind of an impact the world's 600 million pet cats have on wildlife populations—and whether that impact poses a threat to biodiversity conservation.

然而,目前还不清楚世界上6亿只宠物猫对野生动物种群产生了怎样的影响,也不清楚这种影响是否会威胁生物多样性。

"Anyone who has a cat sees their cats bring animals home. And the question is, well, does it matter...and especially we wanted to know…where are the cats actually hunting? Are they hunting in their backyards or are they going out into the nature preserves?"

“任何养猫的人都会看到他们的猫把动物带回家。问题是,这重要吗?我们特别想知道,猫到底在哪里捕猎?它们是在自家后院打猎呢,还是去自然保护区?”

North Carolina State University zoologist Roland Kays.

北卡罗来纳州立大学的动物学家罗兰·凯斯说道。

Together with colleagues in the UK, Australia, and New Zealand, Kays distributed small GPS trackers to citizen scientist cat owners. They attached the trackers to their cats' collars. In all, more than 900 pet cats were tracked this way, all of which were routinely allowed to roam freely outside.

凯斯与英国、澳大利亚和新西兰的同事一起,把小型GPS追踪器分发给养猫的公民。他们把追踪器系在猫的项圈上。通过这种方式,来追踪900多只在户外自由活动的宠物猫。

Some cats were true explorers. One British cat called Max walked almost two kilometers back and forth along a road between two neighboring villages—twice! But the majority were homebodies, rarely straying more than a hundred meters from home. In other words, they used their own backyards, plus those of a few neighbors, as their hunting grounds. The findings are in the journal Animal Conservation.

有些猫是真正的探险家。一只名叫Max的英国猫在两个相邻村庄之间的路上来回走了近两公里——两次!但大多数猫都是“宅男”,很少在离家一百米以外的地方游荡。换句话说,它们用家里的后院和一些邻居的后院,作为狩猎场。这项研究结果发表在《动物保护》杂志上。

"We were able to put this into kind of a currency, into a value of how many prey animals does a pet cat kill per hectare, sort of per area, per year? And that's something we can also estimate for wild predators. So we were able to estimate this for a wild cat called the jungle cat, which is about the same size. And they kill a lot more per cat because they have to hunt to get everything that they eat, whereas the pet cats get their food bowl. But they hunt over a massive area, compared to the pet cats."

我们可以把它转换成一种货币,一种价值­——宠物猫每年每公顷杀死多少猎物?这也是我们对野生捕食者的估计。我们估算出一种叫做丛林猫的体型,它和宠物猫体型差不多大。但每只丛林猫杀死的动物更多,因为它们必须捕猎才能得到食物。但与宠物猫相比,丛林猫捕猎的范围很大。”

And in some places, including California, Florida, Australia, and elsewhere, cats were an important threat to some species that are already in trouble.

在一些地方,如加利福尼亚、佛罗里达、澳大利亚和其他地方,猫咪已经开始威胁部分陷入困境的物种。

"On one hand, it’s kind of good news that the cats aren't going out further abroad, but it’s bad news that they're quite likely to have an impact on animals they share space with near their houses."

“一方面,这是一种好消息,猫不会去更远的地方,但这也是一个坏消息,因为它们很可影响离自己家很近、共享空间的动物。

With so much killing concentrated around people's houses, the positive impacts of urban wildlife—like the beauty of songbirds, or the way small lizards can control insect pests—could get washed away in precisely the areas where those benefits are most appreciated. So, when conservationists implore cat owners to keep their pets indoors, scientific evidence agrees.

随着房子周围的杀戮行为增多,城市野生动物的积极影响——比如美丽的鸣禽、小蜥蜴控制捕捉害虫的方式——都可能受到冲击,而这些都是人们最欣赏的。因此,当自然资源保护主义者恳求猫主人把宠物养在室内时,科学证据也同意这一观点。


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