科学美国人(翻译):狐猴调情用的是普通气味 2020.05.07

cathy0301 2020-05-12 1193 阅读
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Lemur Flirting Uses Common Scents

狐猴调情用的是普通气味

When preparing for a date, a human might use a small spritz of cologne or perfume. And male ring-tailed lemurs also splash on some cologne to impress the females. The only difference is they secrete their own scents from glands near their wrists. And during the breeding season, the males rub the secretions from their wrists onto their tails, and then wave the tails near females. Researchers actually call this behavior "stink flirting."

在准备约会时,人们可能会喷一点古龙水或香水。雄性环尾狐猴也会洒一些古龙水来吸引雌性。唯一的区别是它们从手腕附近的腺体中分泌自己的气味。在繁殖季节,雄鱼会把手腕上的分泌物抹到尾巴上,然后在雌鱼附近挥动尾巴。研究人员称这种行为为“臭味调情”。

Biologists already knew that lemurs have scent glands and that they use them to communicate their social rank or to identify their territories. Scientists also knew that sometimes males use their scent glands as part of a dominance display against potential rivals. But nobody had really looked to see whether the females were relying on the males' scents as part of their mate selection process.

生物学家已经知道狐猴有气味腺,它们用气味腺来传达自己的社会地位或识别自己的领地。科学家们还知道,雄性有时会利用它们的气味腺来显示对潜在竞争对手的优势。但没有人真正观察过雌性是否依赖雄性的气味作为择偶过程的一部分。

Nobody until Kazushige Touhara, a biological chemist at the University of Tokyo. Working at a wildlife laboratory, he and his team collected the secretions from male ring-tailed lemurs' wrist glands twice a month for several years. In an email he described the males' scent as "fruity and floral." The researchers identified three chemical compounds in the secretions that were in higher concentrations during the breeding season—which suggested that these chemicals, all of which are long-chain fatty aldehydes, might be involved in mating and reproductive behaviors.

东京大学的生物化学家Kazushige Touhara说。在野生动物实验室工作的几年里,他和他的团队每月两次从雄性环尾狐猴的腕部腺体中收集分泌物。在一封电子邮件中,他将雄鱼的气味描述为“水果和花香”。研究人员在繁殖季节的分泌物中发现了三种浓度较高的化合物,这表明这些化合物都是长链脂肪醛,可能与交配和繁殖行为有关。

After identifying the three compounds, the researchers soaked cotton balls in a variety of smelly substances, then offered them to female ring-tails. And the lady lemurs spent more time sniffing cotton balls that were infused with the three aldehydes. Especially during the breeding season.More research is necessary to be sure, but Touhara says this is the first time a sex pheromone has potentially been identified in a primate. The findings are in the journal Current Biology. [Mika Shirasu et al Key male glandular odorants attracting female ring-tailed lemurs]

在确定了这三种化合物之后,研究人员将棉球浸泡在各种有气味的物质中,然后将它们提供给雌性环尾猴。而狐猴夫人则花更多的时间嗅注入了三种醛类物质的棉球。特别是在繁殖季节。虽然还需要更多的研究来证实,但是Touhara说这是第一次在灵长类动物身上发现性信息素。这项研究结果发表在《当代生物学》杂志上。

While none of these three compounds have yet been identified in the secretions of any other primate, they have been found in lamb wool. Their presence implies that these substances might help newborn sheep recognize their mothers. And one of the chemicals also acts as a sex pheromone in two different types of insects. Which means that these kinds of long-chain fatty aldehydes are likely used widely throughout the animal kingdom for social communication. No wonder they’re often used in the colognes and perfumes we humans pay through the nose for. 

虽然在其他灵长类动物的分泌物中还没有发现这三种化合物,但在羔羊毛中却发现了它们。它们的存在意味着这些物质可能有助于新生绵羊识别它们的母亲。其中一种化学物质在两种不同的昆虫中也起着性信息素的作用。这意味着这类长链脂肪醛可能在整个动物界广泛用于社交。难怪它们经常被用在古龙水和香水中,我们人类用鼻子来购买。

—Jason G. Goldman

—来自Jason G. Goldman


Lemur Flirting Uses Common Scents

狐猴调情用的是普通气味

When preparing for a date, a human might use a small spritz of cologne or perfume. And male ring-tailed lemurs also splash on some cologne to impress the females. The only difference is they secrete their own scents from glands near their wrists. And during the breeding season, the males rub the secretions from their wrists onto their tails, and then wave the tails near females. Researchers actually call this behavior "stink flirting."

在准备约会时,人们可能会喷一点古龙水或香水。雄性环尾狐猴也会洒一些古龙水来吸引雌性。唯一的区别是它们从手腕附近的腺体中分泌自己的气味。在繁殖季节,雄鱼会把手腕上的分泌物抹到尾巴上,然后在雌鱼附近挥动尾巴。研究人员称这种行为为“臭味调情”。

Biologists already knew that lemurs have scent glands and that they use them to communicate their social rank or to identify their territories. Scientists also knew that sometimes males use their scent glands as part of a dominance display against potential rivals. But nobody had really looked to see whether the females were relying on the males' scents as part of their mate selection process.

生物学家已经知道狐猴有气味腺,它们用气味腺来传达自己的社会地位或识别自己的领地。科学家们还知道,雄性有时会利用它们的气味腺来显示对潜在竞争对手的优势。但没有人真正观察过雌性是否依赖雄性的气味作为择偶过程的一部分。

Nobody until Kazushige Touhara, a biological chemist at the University of Tokyo. Working at a wildlife laboratory, he and his team collected the secretions from male ring-tailed lemurs' wrist glands twice a month for several years. In an email he described the males' scent as "fruity and floral." The researchers identified three chemical compounds in the secretions that were in higher concentrations during the breeding season—which suggested that these chemicals, all of which are long-chain fatty aldehydes, might be involved in mating and reproductive behaviors.

东京大学的生物化学家Kazushige Touhara说。在野生动物实验室工作的几年里,他和他的团队每月两次从雄性环尾狐猴的腕部腺体中收集分泌物。在一封电子邮件中,他将雄鱼的气味描述为“水果和花香”。研究人员在繁殖季节的分泌物中发现了三种浓度较高的化合物,这表明这些化合物都是长链脂肪醛,可能与交配和繁殖行为有关。

After identifying the three compounds, the researchers soaked cotton balls in a variety of smelly substances, then offered them to female ring-tails. And the lady lemurs spent more time sniffing cotton balls that were infused with the three aldehydes. Especially during the breeding season.More research is necessary to be sure, but Touhara says this is the first time a sex pheromone has potentially been identified in a primate. The findings are in the journal Current Biology. [Mika Shirasu et al Key male glandular odorants attracting female ring-tailed lemurs]

在确定了这三种化合物之后,研究人员将棉球浸泡在各种有气味的物质中,然后将它们提供给雌性环尾猴。而狐猴夫人则花更多的时间嗅注入了三种醛类物质的棉球。特别是在繁殖季节。虽然还需要更多的研究来证实,但是Touhara说这是第一次在灵长类动物身上发现性信息素。这项研究结果发表在《当代生物学》杂志上。

While none of these three compounds have yet been identified in the secretions of any other primate, they have been found in lamb wool. Their presence implies that these substances might help newborn sheep recognize their mothers. And one of the chemicals also acts as a sex pheromone in two different types of insects. Which means that these kinds of long-chain fatty aldehydes are likely used widely throughout the animal kingdom for social communication. No wonder they’re often used in the colognes and perfumes we humans pay through the nose for. 

虽然在其他灵长类动物的分泌物中还没有发现这三种化合物,但在羔羊毛中却发现了它们。它们的存在意味着这些物质可能有助于新生绵羊识别它们的母亲。其中一种化学物质在两种不同的昆虫中也起着性信息素的作用。这意味着这类长链脂肪醛可能在整个动物界广泛用于社交。难怪它们经常被用在古龙水和香水中,我们人类用鼻子来购买。

—Jason G. Goldman

—来自Jason G. Goldman


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