2016年6月英语四级听力真题及答案 第3套

韩萱 2016-10-17 3663 阅读
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Section A News Report

Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports。 At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions。 Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D)。 Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。

Drections: Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Question 1

A) This incident occurred in Tibet.

B) The dead cubs were found in the front of a temple.

C) Some tiger cubs were dead because of abuse.

D) The reason why they were in the freezer was clear.

Question 2

A) About 2 weeks.

B) About 7 days.

C) About 1 year.

D) About 40 days.

Question 3

A) 17.

B) 2.3.

C) 57.

D) 12.

Question 4

A) It can reduce the time to travel.

B) It can reduce the vehicles on roads.

C) It can move cargo between north and south.

D) All of A、B and C.

Drections:Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Question 5

A) He was abandoned by his parents.

B) He got lost in the forest.

C) He went far to drink water.

D) It wasn't mentioned.

Question 6

A) The boy's father.

B) Soldiers, police and volunteers.

C) Japan's military.

D) Child psychiatrists.

Question 7

A) On Wednesday night.

B) A few minutes later.

C) Wednesday.

D) Since Saturday.

Section B Conversation

Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations。 At the end of each conversations you will hear four questions。 Both the conversations and the question-s will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question。 You must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D)。 Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。

Drections: Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

Question 8

A) He prefers the smaller evening classes.

B) He has signed up for a day course.

C) He has to work during the day.

D) He finds the evening course cheaper.

Question 9

A) Learn a computer language.

B) Learn data processing.

C) Buy some computer software.

D) Buy a few coursebooks.

Question 10

A) Thursday evening, from 7:00 to 9:45.

B) From September 1 to New Year's eve.

C) Every Monday, lasting for 12 weeks.

D) Three hours a week, 45 hours in total.

Question 11

A) What to bring for registration.

B) Where to attend the class.

C) How he can get to Frost Hall.

D) Whether he can use a check.

Drections: Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

Question 12

A) A training coach.

B) A trading adviser.

C) A professional manager.

D) A financial trader.

Question 13

A) He can save on living expenses.

B) He considers cooking creative.

C) He can enjoy healthier food.

D) He thinks take-away is tasteless.

Question 14

A) It is something inevitable.

B) It is frustrating sometimes.

C) It takes patience to manage.

D) It can be a good thing.

Question 15

A ) The element of uncertainty and the mental challenge.

B ) The element of certainty and physical challenge.

C) The way he deals with all kinds of emotions.

D) The success that his stressful job brings about.

Section C Passages

Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages。 At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions。 Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D)。Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。

Drections:Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 16

A) There were no planets without moons.

B) There was no air or water on Jupiter.

C) Life was not possible in outer space.

D) The mystery of life could not be resolved.

Question 17

A) It has a number of active volcanoes.

B) It has an atmosphere like the earth's.

C) It has a large ocean under its surface.

D) It has deep caves several miles long.

Question 18

A) Light is not an essential element to it.

B) Life can form in very hot temperatures.

C) Every form of life undergoes evolution.

D) Oxygen is not needed for some life forms.

Drections:Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 19

A) Whether they should take the child home.

B) What Dr. Meyer's instructions exactly were.

C) Who should take care of the child at home.

D) When the child would completely recover.

Question 20

A) She encourages them to ask questions when in doubt.

B) She makes them write down all her instructions.

C) She has them act out what they are to do at home.

D) She asks them to repeat what they are supposed to do.

Question 21

A) It lacks the stability of the printed word.

B) It contains many grammatical errors.

C) It is heavily dependent on the context.

D) It facilitates interpersonal communication.

Drections: Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 22

A) Job security.

B) Good labour relations.

C) Challenging work.

D) Attractive wages and benefits.

Question 23

A) Many tedious jobs continue to be done manually.

B) More and more unskilled workers will lose jobs.

C) Computers will change the nature of many jobs.

D) Boring jobs will gradually be made enjoyable.

Question 24

A) Offer them chances of promotion.

B) Improve their working conditions.

C) Encourage them to compete with each other.

D) Give them responsibilities as part of a team.

Question 25

A) They will not bring real benefits to the staff.

B) They concern a small number of people only.

C) They are arbitrarily set by the administrators.

D) They are beyond the control of ordinary workers.

参考答案

1.C) Some tiger cubs were dead because of abuse.

2.B) About 7 days.

3.C) 57.

4.D) All of A、B and C.

5.A) He was abandoned by his parents.

6.B) Soldiers, police and volunteers.

7.D) Since Saturday.

8.C) He has to work during the day.

9.B) Learn data processing.

10.C) Every Monday, lasting for 12 weeks.

11.A) What to bring for registration.

12.D) A financial trader.

13.B) He considers cooking creative.

14.D) It can be a good thing.

15.A ) The element of uncertainty and the mental challenge.

16.C) Life was not possible in outer space.

17.C) It has a large ocean under its surface.

18.A) Light is not an essential element to it.

19.B) What Dr. Meyer's instructions exactly were.

20.D) She asks them to repeat what they are supposed to do.

21.A) It lacks the stability of the printed word.

22.C) Challenging work.

23.A) Many tedious jobs continue to be done manually.

24.D) Give them responsibilities as part of a team.

25.B) They concern a small number of people only.

听力原文

Officials in Thailand found 40 dead tiger cubs at a Buddhist temple accused of animal abuse.

The dead cubs were discovered Wednesday in a freezer at the temple, west of Bangkok.

Authorities found them while removing dozens of mostly full-grown live tigers from the temple grounds.

Officials said the cubs appeared to be about a week old.

It was not known why they were in the freezer, where temple staff kept food.

Monks have been operating an unsanctioned zoo, called Tiger Temple.

Tourists paid money to view and take pictures with the tigers and other exotic animals.

Thai authorities plan to file charges against the temple for illegally possessing endangered species.

Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Question 1. What do we learn from the news report?

Question 2. How old were the tiger cubs?

Switzerland has opened the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel, 17 years after starting work on the project.

The Gotthard Railway Tunnel is 57 kilometers long.

Trains passing through it will be about 2.3 kilometers underground at the deepest point.

The tunnel cost $12 billion to build under the Alps of central Switzerland.

The tunnel will reduce the time it takes trains to travel between northern and southern Europe.

It is also expected to lower the number of vehicles on roads, and move cargo between north and south.

The two-way tunnel opens for commercial service in December.

When that happens, up to 260 freight trains and 65 passenger trains will be able to pass through it every day.

Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Question 3. How many kilometers is the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel?

Question 4. What advantages can the tunnel bring to Europe?

A Japanese boy named Yamato Tanooka remains missing four days after his parents abandoned him as a punishment, police said.

Japan's military joined the search Wednesday for the 7-year-old boy missing in a forest in northern Japan.

But on Wednesday night, the boy still had not been found.

About 275 soldiers, police and volunteers searched for him Wednesday.

The boy has been missing since Saturday, when his parents made him get out of their car to punish him for throwing rocks at cars and people, according to police.

Kyodo News Service said police are looking into whether the parents should be charged with child abandonment.

Child psychiatrists said even a threat of leaving a child behind is child abuse because of the stress it creates.

Police said the boy's father, Takayuki Tanooka, returned to the area to look for his son a few minutes later, but could not find him.

Tanooka first told police his son disappeared while the family was picking vegetables.

He later said that he and his wife had punished their son for bad behavior.

Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.

Question 5. How was the boy missing?

Question 6. Who searched for the boy four days after his parents abandoned him?

Question 7. When was the boy missing?

W: Hello, Parkson College. May I help you?

M: Yes. I'm looking for information on courses in computer programming. I would need it for the fall semester.

W: Do you want a day or evening course?

M: Well,it would have to be an evening course since I work during the day.

W: Aha. Have you taken any courses in data processing?

M: No.

W: Oh. Well,data processing is a course you have to take before you can take computer programming.

M: Oh, I see. Well, when is it given? I hope it's not on Thursdays.

W: Well,there's a class that meets on Monday evenings at seven.

M: Just once a week?

W: Yes. But that's almost three hours from seven to nine forty-five.

M: Oh. Well, that's alright. I could manage that. How many weeks does the course last?

W: Mmmm, let me see.Twelve weeks. You start the first week in September, and finish, oh, just before Christmas. December 21st.

M: And how much is the course?

W: That’s three hundred dollars including the necessary computer time.

M: Aha. Okay. Ah, where do I go to register?

W: Registration is on the second and third of September, between 6:00 and 9:00 in Frost Hall.

M: Is that the round building behind the parking lot?

W: Yes. That's the one。

M: Oh, I know how to get there. Is there anything that I should bring with me?

W: No, just your checkbook.

M: Well, thank you so much.

W: You are very welcome. Bye!

M: Bye!

Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

Question 8. Why does the man choose to take an evening course?

Question 9. What does the man have to do before taking the course of computer programming?

Question 10. What do we learn about the schedule of the evening course?

Question 11. What does the man want to know at the end of the conversation?

W: So why exactly does your job have a reputation for being stressful?

M: Stress is generally driven by the feeling of being out of control of a situation and the feeling of a situation controlling you. Trading in financial markets combines both.

W: How do you relax in the evening?

M: I very rarely do anything work-related so it's easy to escape "The Markets". I generally go to the gym or go for a run, especially if I've had a bad day. I always cook a meal rather than have a take-away to do something my brain would regard as creative.

W: Do you think what you do to relax is an effective way to beat stress?

M: I don't think there's a specific rule about how to beat stress. I generally find that what I do is effective for me.

W: Would you consider changing your job because of the high stress factor?

M: I have considered leaving my job due to stress-related factors. However, I do think that an element of stress is a good thing, and if used the right way, can actually be a positive thing.

W: What do you enjoy about the stressful aspects of your job?

M: Having said all that, I do actually enjoy an element of uncertainty. I enjoy a mental challenge. Trading generates a wide range of emotions second by second. How you deal with and manage those emotions, dictates short, medium and long term trading performance and success.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

12. What is the man's job?

13. Why does the man prefer to cook a meal rather than have a take-away?

14. What does the man say about an element of stress in his job?

15. What does the man enjoy about the stressful parts of his job?

Since early times, people have been fascinated with the idea of life existing somewhere else besides earth.

Until recently, scientists believed that life on other planets was just a hopeful dream.

But now they are beginning to locate places where life could form.

In 1997, they saw evidence of planets near other stars like the sun.

But scientists now think that life could be even nearer in our own solar system.

One place scientists are studying very closely is Europa, a moon of Jupiter.

Space probes have provided evidence that Europa has a large ocean under its surface.

The probes have also made scientists think that under its surface Europa has a rocky core giving off volcanic heat.

Water and heat from volcanic activity are two basic conditions needed for life to form.

A third is certain basic chemicals such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen.

Scientists believe there might be such chemicals lying at the bottom of Europa's ocean.

They may have already created life, or may be about to.

You may wonder if light is also needed for life to form.

Until recently, scientists thought that light was essential.

But now, places have been found on earth that are in total blackness, such as caves several miles beneath the surface, and bacteria, primitive forms of life, have been seen there.

So the lack of light in Europa's subsurface ocean doesn't automatically rule out life forming.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 16. What did scientists once believe according to the passage?

Question 17. What have scientists found about Europa, a moon of Jupiter?

Question 18. What scientists come to know recently about the formation of life?

In her early days as an emergency room physician, Dr. Joanna Meyer treated a child who had suffered a second degree burn.

After the child had been treated, and was being prepared for discharge, Dr. Meyer talked to the parents about how they should care for the child at home.

Also listening to her were a half dozen other family members.

A few hours later, when she came to say goodbye, the family asked her to settle an argument they've been having over exactly what advice she had given.

"As I talked to them, I was amazed," she said. "A11 of them had heard the simple instructions I had given just a few hours before.

But they had three or four different versions. The most basic details were unclear and confusing.

I was surprised, because these were intelligent people.”

This episode gave Dr. Meyer her first clue to something every doctor learns sooner or later—most people just don't listen very well.

Nowadays, she says, she repeats her instructions, and even conducts a reality check with some patients:

she asks them to tell her what they think they're supposed to do.

She also provides take-home sheets, which are computer printouts tailored to the patients' situation.

Dr. Meyer's listeners are not unusual.

When new or difficult material is presented, almost all listeners are faced with a challenge because human speech lacks the stability and permanence of the printed word.

Oral communication is fast-moving and impermanent.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 19. What did the child's family members argue about in the hospital?

Question 20. What does Dr. Meyer do to ensure her patients understand her instructions?

Question 21. What does the speaker say about human speech?

It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers.

But one expert, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely "satisfiers".

"Motivators", in contrast, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility.

However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are always plenty of boring, repetitive and mechanical jobs, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them.

So how do managers motivate people in such jobs?

One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team.

For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work at the checkout into a team,

and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on.

Many people now talk about the importance of a company's shared values or culture, with which all the staff can identify:

for example, being the best hotel chain, or making the best, the most user-friendly or the most reliable products in a particular field.

Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people.

Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

Question 22. What can actually motivate workers according to Frederick Herzberg?

Question 23. What does the speaker say about jobs in the computer era?

Question 24. What do some supermarkets do to motivate their employees?

Question 25. Why does the speaker say financial targets are less likely to motivate workers?
Section A News Report Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports。 At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions。 Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D)。 Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。 Drections: Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 1 A) This incident occurred in Tibet. B) The dead cubs were found in the front of a temple. C) Some tiger cubs were dead because of abuse. D) The reason why they were in the freezer was clear. Question 2 A) About 2 weeks. B) About 7 days. C) About 1 year. D) About 40 days. Question 3 A) 17. B) 2.3. C) 57. D) 12. Question 4 A) It can reduce the time to travel. B) It can reduce the vehicles on roads. C) It can move cargo between north and south. D) All of A、B and C. Drections:Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 5 A) He was abandoned by his parents. B) He got lost in the forest. C) He went far to drink water. D) It wasn't mentioned. Question 6 A) The boy's father. B) Soldiers, police and volunteers. C) Japan's military. D) Child psychiatrists. Question 7 A) On Wednesday night. B) A few minutes later. C) Wednesday. D) Since Saturday. Section B Conversation Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations。 At the end of each conversations you will hear four questions。 Both the conversations and the question-s will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question。 You must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D)。 Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。 Drections: Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard. Question 8 A) He prefers the smaller evening classes. B) He has signed up for a day course. C) He has to work during the day. D) He finds the evening course cheaper. Question 9 A) Learn a computer language. B) Learn data processing. C) Buy some computer software. D) Buy a few coursebooks. Question 10 A) Thursday evening, from 7:00 to 9:45. B) From September 1 to New Year's eve. C) Every Monday, lasting for 12 weeks. D) Three hours a week, 45 hours in total. Question 11 A) What to bring for registration. B) Where to attend the class. C) How he can get to Frost Hall. D) Whether he can use a check. Drections: Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard. Question 12 A) A training coach. B) A trading adviser. C) A professional manager. D) A financial trader. Question 13 A) He can save on living expenses. B) He considers cooking creative. C) He can enjoy healthier food. D) He thinks take-away is tasteless. Question 14 A) It is something inevitable. B) It is frustrating sometimes. C) It takes patience to manage. D) It can be a good thing. Question 15 A ) The element of uncertainty and the mental challenge. B ) The element of certainty and physical challenge. C) The way he deals with all kinds of emotions. D) The success that his stressful job brings about. Section C Passages Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages。 At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions。 Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once。 After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D)。Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre。 Drections:Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 16 A) There were no planets without moons. B) There was no air or water on Jupiter. C) Life was not possible in outer space. D) The mystery of life could not be resolved. Question 17 A) It has a number of active volcanoes. B) It has an atmosphere like the earth's. C) It has a large ocean under its surface. D) It has deep caves several miles long. Question 18 A) Light is not an essential element to it. B) Life can form in very hot temperatures. C) Every form of life undergoes evolution. D) Oxygen is not needed for some life forms. Drections:Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 19 A) Whether they should take the child home. B) What Dr. Meyer's instructions exactly were. C) Who should take care of the child at home. D) When the child would completely recover. Question 20 A) She encourages them to ask questions when in doubt. B) She makes them write down all her instructions. C) She has them act out what they are to do at home. D) She asks them to repeat what they are supposed to do. Question 21 A) It lacks the stability of the printed word. B) It contains many grammatical errors. C) It is heavily dependent on the context. D) It facilitates interpersonal communication. Drections: Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 22 A) Job security. B) Good labour relations. C) Challenging work. D) Attractive wages and benefits. Question 23 A) Many tedious jobs continue to be done manually. B) More and more unskilled workers will lose jobs. C) Computers will change the nature of many jobs. D) Boring jobs will gradually be made enjoyable. Question 24 A) Offer them chances of promotion. B) Improve their working conditions. C) Encourage them to compete with each other. D) Give them responsibilities as part of a team. Question 25 A) They will not bring real benefits to the staff. B) They concern a small number of people only. C) They are arbitrarily set by the administrators. D) They are beyond the control of ordinary workers. 参考答案 1.C) Some tiger cubs were dead because of abuse. 2.B) About 7 days. 3.C) 57. 4.D) All of A、B and C. 5.A) He was abandoned by his parents. 6.B) Soldiers, police and volunteers. 7.D) Since Saturday. 8.C) He has to work during the day. 9.B) Learn data processing. 10.C) Every Monday, lasting for 12 weeks. 11.A) What to bring for registration. 12.D) A financial trader. 13.B) He considers cooking creative. 14.D) It can be a good thing. 15.A ) The element of uncertainty and the mental challenge. 16.C) Life was not possible in outer space. 17.C) It has a large ocean under its surface. 18.A) Light is not an essential element to it. 19.B) What Dr. Meyer's instructions exactly were. 20.D) She asks them to repeat what they are supposed to do. 21.A) It lacks the stability of the printed word. 22.C) Challenging work. 23.A) Many tedious jobs continue to be done manually. 24.D) Give them responsibilities as part of a team. 25.B) They concern a small number of people only. 听力原文 Officials in Thailand found 40 dead tiger cubs at a Buddhist temple accused of animal abuse. The dead cubs were discovered Wednesday in a freezer at the temple, west of Bangkok. Authorities found them while removing dozens of mostly full-grown live tigers from the temple grounds. Officials said the cubs appeared to be about a week old. It was not known why they were in the freezer, where temple staff kept food. Monks have been operating an unsanctioned zoo, called Tiger Temple. Tourists paid money to view and take pictures with the tigers and other exotic animals. Thai authorities plan to file charges against the temple for illegally possessing endangered species. Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 1. What do we learn from the news report? Question 2. How old were the tiger cubs? Switzerland has opened the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel, 17 years after starting work on the project. The Gotthard Railway Tunnel is 57 kilometers long. Trains passing through it will be about 2.3 kilometers underground at the deepest point. The tunnel cost $12 billion to build under the Alps of central Switzerland. The tunnel will reduce the time it takes trains to travel between northern and southern Europe. It is also expected to lower the number of vehicles on roads, and move cargo between north and south. The two-way tunnel opens for commercial service in December. When that happens, up to 260 freight trains and 65 passenger trains will be able to pass through it every day. Questions 3 and 4 are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 3. How many kilometers is the world's longest and deepest railway tunnel? Question 4. What advantages can the tunnel bring to Europe? A Japanese boy named Yamato Tanooka remains missing four days after his parents abandoned him as a punishment, police said. Japan's military joined the search Wednesday for the 7-year-old boy missing in a forest in northern Japan. But on Wednesday night, the boy still had not been found. About 275 soldiers, police and volunteers searched for him Wednesday. The boy has been missing since Saturday, when his parents made him get out of their car to punish him for throwing rocks at cars and people, according to police. Kyodo News Service said police are looking into whether the parents should be charged with child abandonment. Child psychiatrists said even a threat of leaving a child behind is child abuse because of the stress it creates. Police said the boy's father, Takayuki Tanooka, returned to the area to look for his son a few minutes later, but could not find him. Tanooka first told police his son disappeared while the family was picking vegetables. He later said that he and his wife had punished their son for bad behavior. Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard. Question 5. How was the boy missing? Question 6. Who searched for the boy four days after his parents abandoned him? Question 7. When was the boy missing? W: Hello, Parkson College. May I help you? M: Yes. I'm looking for information on courses in computer programming. I would need it for the fall semester. W: Do you want a day or evening course? M: Well,it would have to be an evening course since I work during the day. W: Aha. Have you taken any courses in data processing? M: No. W: Oh. Well,data processing is a course you have to take before you can take computer programming. M: Oh, I see. Well, when is it given? I hope it's not on Thursdays. W: Well,there's a class that meets on Monday evenings at seven. M: Just once a week? W: Yes. But that's almost three hours from seven to nine forty-five. M: Oh. Well, that's alright. I could manage that. How many weeks does the course last? W: Mmmm, let me see.Twelve weeks. You start the first week in September, and finish, oh, just before Christmas. December 21st. M: And how much is the course? W: That’s three hundred dollars including the necessary computer time. M: Aha. Okay. Ah, where do I go to register? W: Registration is on the second and third of September, between 6:00 and 9:00 in Frost Hall. M: Is that the round building behind the parking lot? W: Yes. That's the one。 M: Oh, I know how to get there. Is there anything that I should bring with me? W: No, just your checkbook. M: Well, thank you so much. W: You are very welcome. Bye! M: Bye! Questions 8 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard. Question 8. Why does the man choose to take an evening course? Question 9. What does the man have to do before taking the course of computer programming? Question 10. What do we learn about the schedule of the evening course? Question 11. What does the man want to know at the end of the conversation? W: So why exactly does your job have a reputation for being stressful? M: Stress is generally driven by the feeling of being out of control of a situation and the feeling of a situation controlling you. Trading in financial markets combines both. W: How do you relax in the evening? M: I very rarely do anything work-related so it's easy to escape "The Markets". I generally go to the gym or go for a run, especially if I've had a bad day. I always cook a meal rather than have a take-away to do something my brain would regard as creative. W: Do you think what you do to relax is an effective way to beat stress? M: I don't think there's a specific rule about how to beat stress. I generally find that what I do is effective for me. W: Would you consider changing your job because of the high stress factor? M: I have considered leaving my job due to stress-related factors. However, I do think that an element of stress is a good thing, and if used the right way, can actually be a positive thing. W: What do you enjoy about the stressful aspects of your job? M: Having said all that, I do actually enjoy an element of uncertainty. I enjoy a mental challenge. Trading generates a wide range of emotions second by second. How you deal with and manage those emotions, dictates short, medium and long term trading performance and success. Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 12. What is the man's job? 13. Why does the man prefer to cook a meal rather than have a take-away? 14. What does the man say about an element of stress in his job? 15. What does the man enjoy about the stressful parts of his job? Since early times, people have been fascinated with the idea of life existing somewhere else besides earth. Until recently, scientists believed that life on other planets was just a hopeful dream. But now they are beginning to locate places where life could form. In 1997, they saw evidence of planets near other stars like the sun. But scientists now think that life could be even nearer in our own solar system. One place scientists are studying very closely is Europa, a moon of Jupiter. Space probes have provided evidence that Europa has a large ocean under its surface. The probes have also made scientists think that under its surface Europa has a rocky core giving off volcanic heat. Water and heat from volcanic activity are two basic conditions needed for life to form. A third is certain basic chemicals such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Scientists believe there might be such chemicals lying at the bottom of Europa's ocean. They may have already created life, or may be about to. You may wonder if light is also needed for life to form. Until recently, scientists thought that light was essential. But now, places have been found on earth that are in total blackness, such as caves several miles beneath the surface, and bacteria, primitive forms of life, have been seen there. So the lack of light in Europa's subsurface ocean doesn't automatically rule out life forming. Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 16. What did scientists once believe according to the passage? Question 17. What have scientists found about Europa, a moon of Jupiter? Question 18. What scientists come to know recently about the formation of life? In her early days as an emergency room physician, Dr. Joanna Meyer treated a child who had suffered a second degree burn. After the child had been treated, and was being prepared for discharge, Dr. Meyer talked to the parents about how they should care for the child at home. Also listening to her were a half dozen other family members. A few hours later, when she came to say goodbye, the family asked her to settle an argument they've been having over exactly what advice she had given. "As I talked to them, I was amazed," she said. "A11 of them had heard the simple instructions I had given just a few hours before. But they had three or four different versions. The most basic details were unclear and confusing. I was surprised, because these were intelligent people.” This episode gave Dr. Meyer her first clue to something every doctor learns sooner or later—most people just don't listen very well. Nowadays, she says, she repeats her instructions, and even conducts a reality check with some patients: she asks them to tell her what they think they're supposed to do. She also provides take-home sheets, which are computer printouts tailored to the patients' situation. Dr. Meyer's listeners are not unusual. When new or difficult material is presented, almost all listeners are faced with a challenge because human speech lacks the stability and permanence of the printed word. Oral communication is fast-moving and impermanent. Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 19. What did the child's family members argue about in the hospital? Question 20. What does Dr. Meyer do to ensure her patients understand her instructions? Question 21. What does the speaker say about human speech? It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But one expert, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely "satisfiers". "Motivators", in contrast, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility. However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are always plenty of boring, repetitive and mechanical jobs, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them. So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team. For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work at the checkout into a team, and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on. Many people now talk about the importance of a company's shared values or culture, with which all the staff can identify: for example, being the best hotel chain, or making the best, the most user-friendly or the most reliable products in a particular field. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best. Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question 22. What can actually motivate workers according to Frederick Herzberg? Question 23. What does the speaker say about jobs in the computer era? Question 24. What do some supermarkets do to motivate their employees? Question 25. Why does the speaker say financial targets are less likely to motivate workers?
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