大学英语4级考试精准听力法 短文理解精炼 Exercise Three

韩萱 2011-10-18 7133 阅读
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[00:12.83]Exercise Three
[00:15.25]Passage One
[00:17.48]The education system
[00:19.15]in the United States is
[00:20.93]controlled by the state
[00:22.22]government
[00:23.07]and local authorities.
[00:25.28]According to the United States
[00:26.89]Constitution, the federal
[00:28.69]government has no power to
[00:30.69]establish a national education
[00:32.86]system. Federal agencies do
[00:35.68]not make education policy.
[00:38.22]These decisions are made
[00:39.82]at the state or local levels,
[00:42.24]so you might expect education
[00:44.40] laws and policies to be
[00:46.31]different from state to state.
[00:48.75]On the contrary, there are
[00:50.55]many ways similar,
[00:52.48] for example,
[00:53.47] in all 50 states
[00:54.74]and 6 territories,
[00:56.29]all children must attend school
[00:58.74] from the age of 6 or 7 to 16.
[01:02.74]When students graduate at 16,
[01:05.90] they may choose to look for
[01:07.53]jobs or to attend university
[01:09.90]courses. Public schools
[01:11.98]in those states
[01:12.99]and territories are
[01:14.60]free of charge
[01:15.74]from grade 1 to 12.
[01:18.06]All the public schools received
[01:20.26]money from local government.
[01:22.30]Private schools also operate
[01:24.57]all states and territories.
[01:26.97]Although some
[01:27.99]private schools are operated
[01:29.71]by churches and religious
[01:31.61]groups, most private schools
[01:33.63]are not linked to any religious
[01:35.95]organizations. Private schools
[01:38.59]must be approved by the state
[01:40.54] in which they operate.
[01:42.48]Most private schools do not
[01:44.34]receive government money.
[01:46.51]The parents of private schools’
[01:48.42] students pay the school.
[01:50.63]The annual federal reports
[01:52.42]estimate that in the year 2002,
[01:55.73] more than 46 million students
[01:58.26]attend public schools.
[02:00.37]And another 6 million students
[02:02.92]attend private schools.
[02:05.23]More than 1 million students
[02:06.86]do not go to school at all.
[02:09.58]Their parents teach them at
[02:11.56]home. This home schooling has
[02:13.98]become popular in the last 15
[02:16.19]years or so.
[02:19.61]Questions 26 to 28 are based
[02:22.60]on the passage
[02:23.79]you have just heard.
[02:26.53]26. According to the passage,
[02:30.12] who will make decisions
[02:31.61]as regard to education policy?
[02:49.49]27. At what age does an
[02:52.59]American student leave school
[02:54.42] for jobs or higher academic
[02:56.48]activities?
[03:12.74]28. Where do most private
[03:15.65]schools in America get their
[03:17.54]money?

[03:33.38]Passage Two
[03:34.88]How much paper do you use
[03:36.87]every day? Probably you can’t
[03:39.38]answer that question quickly.
[03:42.02]In 1990 the world’s use of
[03:44.81]paper was about one kilogram
[03:47.14]for each person in a year.
[03:49.40]Now some countries use as
[03:50.96]much as 50 kilograms of paper
[03:53.04] per person in a year.
[03:55.15]Some people say that
[03:56.25]the amount of paper a country
[03:57.96] uses shows how advanced the
[04:00.53] country is. Countries like
[04:02.81]the United States, England
[04:04.81]and Sweden certainly use more
[04:07.12] paper than the others.
[04:08.93]Paper, like many other things
[04:11.37]that we use today, was first
[04:13.59]made in China. In Egypt
[04:16.24]and the western countries,
[04:17.96]paper was not very commonly
[04:19.93]used before the year 1400.
[04:23.20]Chinese first made paper
[04:25.02]about 2 000 years ago.
[04:27.71]China still has pieces of paper
[04:30.62]which were made that old.
[04:32.76]But Chinese paper was not
[04:34.91]made from wood of trees.
[04:36.93]It was made from the
[04:38.28]hair-like parts of certain plants.
[04:40.93]Paper was not made in
[04:42.88]southern Europe until about
[04:44.78]the year 1100. Scandinavia-
[04:48.63]which now makes a great deal
[04:50.48] of the world’s paper did not
[04:52.72]start making it until 1500.
[04:55.81] It was a German named
[04:57.45]Schaeffer who found out that
[04:59.30]the best paper could be made
[05:01.27]from trees. After that,
[05:03.70]the forest countries
[05:05.24]like Canada, Sweden, Norway,
[05:07.47]Finland, and the United States
[05:09.92] became the most important
[05:11.57]in paper making.
[05:13.36]Today in Finland, who makes
[05:15.53]the best paper in the world,
[05:17.58]the paper industry is the
[05:19.52]biggest in the land.
[05:21.33]New paper making machines
[05:23.21]are very big, and they can
[05:25.81]make paper very fast.
[05:28.10]The biggest machine can
[05:30.20]make a piece of paper 300
[05:32.43]meters long and six meters
[05:34.81]wide in just one minute.
[05:39.43]Questions 29 to 31 are based
[05:42.36]on the passage
[05:43.50] you have just heard.
[05:46.15]29. According to some people,
[05:49.84] why do countries like the
[05:51.51]United States, England and
[05:53.54]Sweden use more paper than
[05:55.55] other countries?
[06:11.83]30. What was Chinese paper
[06:14.98]made from?
[06:31.05]31. Which country makes the
[06:34.26]best paper in the world?
[06:51.21]Passage Three
[06:53.52]There are three groups of
[06:54.87]English learners: beginners,
[06:57.04]intermediate learners,
[06:58.52]and learners of specialized
[07:00.08]English. Beginners need to
[07:02.80]learn the basics of English.
[07:04.67]Students who have reached an
[07:06.39] intermediate level benefit from
[07:08.47]learning general English skills.
[07:11.02] But what about student
[07:12.48]who want to learn specialized
[07:14.24]English for their work or
[07:16.26]professional life?
[07:18.25] Most students, who fit into
[07:19.98]this third group, have a clear
[07:21.88]idea about what they want to
[07:23.85]learn. A bank clerk,
[07:25.91]for example, wants to use this
[07:28.04]specialized vocabulary
[07:29.86]and technical terms of finance.
[07:32.48] But for teachers, deciding
[07:34.58]how to teach specialized
[07:35.94]English is not always so easy.
[07:39.32]For a start, the variety is
[07:41.49]enormous. Every field from
[07:44.16]airline pilots to secretaries has
[07:47.04] its own vocabulary and
[07:48.84]technical terms.
[07:50.50]Teachers also need to have an
[07:52.44] up-to-date knowledge of
[07:53.98]that specialized language,
[07:56.20]and not many teachers are
[07:57.78]exposed to working
[07:59.11]environments outside the
[08:00.99]classroom. These issues have
[08:03.15]influenced the way specialized
[08:04.98]English is taught in schools.
[08:07.83]This type of course is usually
[08:10.24]known as English for Specific
[08:12.61]Purposes, or ESP
[08:15.70]and there are ESP courses
[08:18.01]for almost every area of
[08:20.18]professional and working life.
[08:22.74] In Britain, for example,
[08:24.22]there are courses which teach
[08:26.11] English for doctors, lawyers,
[08:28.39] reporters, travel agents
[08:30.22]and people working in the hotel
[08:32.35] industry. By far, the most
[08:34.67]popular ESP courses are for
[08:37.45]Business English.
[08:40.76]Questions 32 to 35 are based
[08:43.81]on the passage
[08:44.84]you have just heard.
[08:47.69]32. What is the characteristic
[08:51.41]of learners of specialized
[08:53.20]English?
[09:09.18]33. According to the passage,
[09:12.46]what should a good ESP
[09:14.25]teacher need to have?
[09:31.13]34. Who needs ESP courses
[09:34.53]most?
[09:50.56]35. What are the most popular
[09:53.88] ESP courses in Britain?
[00:12.83]Exercise Three [00:15.25]Passage One [00:17.48]The education system [00:19.15]in the United States is [00:20.93]controlled by the state [00:22.22]government [00:23.07]and local authorities. [00:25.28]According to the United States [00:26.89]Constitution, the federal [00:28.69]government has no power to [00:30.69]establish a national education [00:32.86]system. Federal agencies do [00:35.68]not make education policy. [00:38.22]These decisions are made [00:39.82]at the state or local levels, [00:42.24]so you might expect education [00:44.40] laws and policies to be [00:46.31]different from state to state. [00:48.75]On the contrary, there are [00:50.55]many ways similar, [00:52.48] for example, [00:53.47] in all 50 states [00:54.74]and 6 territories, [00:56.29]all children must attend school [00:58.74] from the age of 6 or 7 to 16. [01:02.74]When students graduate at 16, [01:05.90] they may choose to look for [01:07.53]jobs or to attend university [01:09.90]courses. Public schools [01:11.98]in those states [01:12.99]and territories are [01:14.60]free of charge [01:15.74]from grade 1 to 12. [01:18.06]All the public schools received [01:20.26]money from local government. [01:22.30]Private schools also operate [01:24.57]all states and territories. [01:26.97]Although some [01:27.99]private schools are operated [01:29.71]by churches and religious [01:31.61]groups, most private schools [01:33.63]are not linked to any religious [01:35.95]organizations. Private schools [01:38.59]must be approved by the state [01:40.54] in which they operate. [01:42.48]Most private schools do not [01:44.34]receive government money. [01:46.51]The parents of private schools’ [01:48.42] students pay the school. [01:50.63]The annual federal reports [01:52.42]estimate that in the year 2002, [01:55.73] more than 46 million students [01:58.26]attend public schools. [02:00.37]And another 6 million students [02:02.92]attend private schools. [02:05.23]More than 1 million students [02:06.86]do not go to school at all. [02:09.58]Their parents teach them at [02:11.56]home. This home schooling has [02:13.98]become popular in the last 15 [02:16.19]years or so. [02:19.61]Questions 26 to 28 are based [02:22.60]on the passage [02:23.79]you have just heard. [02:26.53]26. According to the passage, [02:30.12] who will make decisions [02:31.61]as regard to education policy? [02:49.49]27. At what age does an [02:52.59]American student leave school [02:54.42] for jobs or higher academic [02:56.48]activities? [03:12.74]28. Where do most private [03:15.65]schools in America get their [03:17.54]money? [03:33.38]Passage Two [03:34.88]How much paper do you use [03:36.87]every day? Probably you can’t [03:39.38]answer that question quickly. [03:42.02]In 1990 the world’s use of [03:44.81]paper was about one kilogram [03:47.14]for each person in a year. [03:49.40]Now some countries use as [03:50.96]much as 50 kilograms of paper [03:53.04] per person in a year. [03:55.15]Some people say that [03:56.25]the amount of paper a country [03:57.96] uses shows how advanced the [04:00.53] country is. Countries like [04:02.81]the United States, England [04:04.81]and Sweden certainly use more [04:07.12] paper than the others. [04:08.93]Paper, like many other things [04:11.37]that we use today, was first [04:13.59]made in China. In Egypt [04:16.24]and the western countries, [04:17.96]paper was not very commonly [04:19.93]used before the year 1400. [04:23.20]Chinese first made paper [04:25.02]about 2 000 years ago. [04:27.71]China still has pieces of paper [04:30.62]which were made that old. [04:32.76]But Chinese paper was not [04:34.91]made from wood of trees. [04:36.93]It was made from the [04:38.28]hair-like parts of certain plants. [04:40.93]Paper was not made in [04:42.88]southern Europe until about [04:44.78]the year 1100. Scandinavia- [04:48.63]which now makes a great deal [04:50.48] of the world’s paper did not [04:52.72]start making it until 1500. [04:55.81] It was a German named [04:57.45]Schaeffer who found out that [04:59.30]the best paper could be made [05:01.27]from trees. After that, [05:03.70]the forest countries [05:05.24]like Canada, Sweden, Norway, [05:07.47]Finland, and the United States [05:09.92] became the most important [05:11.57]in paper making. [05:13.36]Today in Finland, who makes [05:15.53]the best paper in the world, [05:17.58]the paper industry is the [05:19.52]biggest in the land. [05:21.33]New paper making machines [05:23.21]are very big, and they can [05:25.81]make paper very fast. [05:28.10]The biggest machine can [05:30.20]make a piece of paper 300 [05:32.43]meters long and six meters [05:34.81]wide in just one minute. [05:39.43]Questions 29 to 31 are based [05:42.36]on the passage [05:43.50] you have just heard. [05:46.15]29. According to some people, [05:49.84] why do countries like the [05:51.51]United States, England and [05:53.54]Sweden use more paper than [05:55.55] other countries? [06:11.83]30. What was Chinese paper [06:14.98]made from? [06:31.05]31. Which country makes the [06:34.26]best paper in the world? [06:51.21]Passage Three [06:53.52]There are three groups of [06:54.87]English learners: beginners, [06:57.04]intermediate learners, [06:58.52]and learners of specialized [07:00.08]English. Beginners need to [07:02.80]learn the basics of English. [07:04.67]Students who have reached an [07:06.39] intermediate level benefit from [07:08.47]learning general English skills. [07:11.02] But what about student [07:12.48]who want to learn specialized [07:14.24]English for their work or [07:16.26]professional life? [07:18.25] Most students, who fit into [07:19.98]this third group, have a clear [07:21.88]idea about what they want to [07:23.85]learn. A bank clerk, [07:25.91]for example, wants to use this [07:28.04]specialized vocabulary [07:29.86]and technical terms of finance. [07:32.48] But for teachers, deciding [07:34.58]how to teach specialized [07:35.94]English is not always so easy. [07:39.32]For a start, the variety is [07:41.49]enormous. Every field from [07:44.16]airline pilots to secretaries has [07:47.04] its own vocabulary and [07:48.84]technical terms. [07:50.50]Teachers also need to have an [07:52.44] up-to-date knowledge of [07:53.98]that specialized language, [07:56.20]and not many teachers are [07:57.78]exposed to working [07:59.11]environments outside the [08:00.99]classroom. These issues have [08:03.15]influenced the way specialized [08:04.98]English is taught in schools. [08:07.83]This type of course is usually [08:10.24]known as English for Specific [08:12.61]Purposes, or ESP [08:15.70]and there are ESP courses [08:18.01]for almost every area of [08:20.18]professional and working life. [08:22.74] In Britain, for example, [08:24.22]there are courses which teach [08:26.11] English for doctors, lawyers, [08:28.39] reporters, travel agents [08:30.22]and people working in the hotel [08:32.35] industry. By far, the most [08:34.67]popular ESP courses are for [08:37.45]Business English. [08:40.76]Questions 32 to 35 are based [08:43.81]on the passage [08:44.84]you have just heard. [08:47.69]32. What is the characteristic [08:51.41]of learners of specialized [08:53.20]English? [09:09.18]33. According to the passage, [09:12.46]what should a good ESP [09:14.25]teacher need to have? [09:31.13]34. Who needs ESP courses [09:34.53]most? [09:50.56]35. What are the most popular [09:53.88] ESP courses in Britain?
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