step by step 2000第四册unit07

497737826 2008-03-03 6477 阅读
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感谢大耳朵网友"单纯de幸福"提供的听力原文

Unit 7 Love and Help (I)

Part I Warming up

Problems in 1940s Problems now

1. talking in class drug abuse

2 chewing gum alcohol abuse

3 making noise teen pregnancy

4 running in the halls suicide

5 cutting in line rape

6 dress code violations robbery

7 littering assault

Tapescript:

In the 1940s, the top seven problems for the U. S. schoolchildren were:

1. talking in class;

2. chewing gum;

3. making noise;

4. running in the halls;

5. cutting in line;

6. dress code violations;

7. littering.

Today's youngsters in the U.S. schools face a set of seven problems that are much more shocking:

1. drug abuse; 2. alcohol abuse; 3. teen pregnancy; 4. suicide; 5. rape;

6. robbery; 7. assault.

B.

Outline

I. Violent crime

A. Including robbery, assault, murder, rape

B. Murder rate: twice as high as 30 years ago

C. Violent crime rate in general: increased 23% (in the same time period)

II. White-collar crime

A. Including embezzlement, bribery, Political corruption, corporate policies that endanger workers and the public

B. White-collar crime rate in general: increased

III. Solutions:

A. Family: through socialization -- leading children to respect themselves, others, and the values of the society

B. Government.

1. By helping people to feel that they are part of the society instead of its victims

2. By instilling the fear of punishment in those who might become criminals

Tapescript:

Looking into crime and violence in the United States is like

opening the proverbial can of worms. So many different problems emerge from the can that you sometimes feel the more you know, the less you understand. What is very clear and indisputable, however, is that violent crime has increased greatly in the United States in recent decades. By violent crime, I mean crimes like robbery, assault, murder, and rape. The murder rate is twice as high as 30 years ago, and violent crime in general has increased 23 percent in the same time period. What is also clear is that the general public is afraid -- afraid of becoming victims of violent crime. Statistics are harder to come by for white-collar crime, crimes including embezzlement, bribery, political corruption, and corporate policies that endanger workers and the public. But many experts agree that there has been an increase in white-collar crime, too.

As for solutions, I think most of us would agree that the family can play a role in reducing crime in the United States: through socialization, which leads children to respect themselves, others, and the values of their society. Moreover, I think society, in the form of government, has a role to play in reducing crime: by helping people to feel that they are part of the society instead of its victims. The government, in the form of the justice system, can also contribute to curbing crime by instilling the fear of punishment in those who might become criminals.

C.

1. Despite a 20% decline in the number of malnourished children in the world by 2020, 132 million will still be underfed.

2. The cost of cutting child malnutrition in half by 2020 would be an extra 10 billion dollars a year.

3. Twenty-five billion dollars are now invested in developing countries annually to boost farm productivity, secure clean water sources, develop world infrastructure, and improve education and health.

4. Latin America will virtually eliminate child malnutrition by 2020. China will cut child malnutrition in half.

5. India will continue to have one third of the world's underfed children by 2020. And Africa will see an 18% increase unless action is taken.

Tapescript:

A new food policy study predicts slowing progress against child's malnutrition over the next 20 years unless governments take more aggressive action.

The International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington says international efforts to reduce the number of malnourished children in the world have been awfully inadequate. It predicts that despite a 20 percent decline in the number of malnourished children by 2020, 132 million will still be underfed. The cost of cutting child malnutrition in half by 2020 would be an extra 10 billion dollars a year. Twenty-five billion dollars are now invested in developing countries annually to boost farm productivity, secure clean water sources, develop world infrastructure, and improve education and health. Ten billion dollars more is a scant amount.

Not all regions face equally bleak food futures, Latin America will virtually eliminate child malnutrition by 2020, and China will cut it in haft. But the Food Policy Organization says India will continue to have one third of the world's underfed children. And Africa will see an 18 percent increase unless action is taken.

D. Read the following difficult sentences and listen.

1. But when kids commit crimes whether it's dealing in drugs, weapons possession or gang banging, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable.

2. Family law experts say that what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws, before more putting in place, because as far, they simply don't seem to be deterring school shootings, let alone bad parenting.

3. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just don't understand it well enough to set the rules, for the pedophiles are using this technology and the fact that they can hide behind the anonymity and pretend they're another child to lure our children in ways that we are not yet prepared to teach our children to avoid.

4. We're also committed to helping schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet by learning how to use it and developing safety programs and education programs for parents so that parents will let their children be on the Internet and help them deal with the risks they'll face day to day from predators, and from kooks and crackpots and misinformation and hate that they will face, so that we're here to empower the parents to help keep the children safe.

Part II Love and help

A.

1. What are the two aspects mentioned concerning the nature of gambling addicts?

--Coming from homes lacking love / looking for wants of family love and parental approval

--Unconsciously wanting to lose

3. In what ways can gambling addicts hopefully be cured?

--By psychiatric treatment

--By word therapy

--By help from organizations like "Gamblers Anonymous"

Tapescript:

Compulsive gamblers almost always come from homes lacking (in) love. As a result, the child grows up still looking for the wants of family love and parental approval. Another aspect to the nature of the gambling addict is that unconsciously he wants to lose.

Psychiatrists believe that compulsive gamblers consciously may expect to win. However, there's a strong element of self-destruction in an inclination to continue betting until all is lost. One New York psychiatrist believes that basically the compulsive gambler is seeking an answer to the question: Do you love me? By winning, he receives a "yes" answer. However the gambler cannot accept the "yes" he sometimes receives because it is contrary to the reality of his or her unhappy childhood, one lacking (in) family love. The gambler's compelled to continue betting, thus expressing again and again his need for love and acceptance. When gambling addicts do win some money, they rarely spend any of it on their families. Money is like a sacred thing to the addicts. It is reserved for one thing: placing a bet.

Fortunately, there's hope and help today for gambling addicts. Psychiatric treatment is one possibility. Word therapy seems to help in some cases. The most readily available and the least expensive help comes from an organization called "Gamblers Anonymous" (GA). GA has more than 90 chapters in the U.S. with about 3,000 gamblers seeking a cure. One basic rule of GA is the gamblers must pay back all their debts, even it takes many years to do so. Thousands of members credit GA with saving them from their addiction, and helping them to build new lives free from the gambling sickness.

Happily, today, with more public interest in helping the gambling addict overcome his problem, and with such organizations as the GA, the gambler who wants help to break his addiction, now has some place or some one to turn to.

B. Summary

Though in almost all the states in America, parents are held responsible for their kids' misdeeds at schools like destroying ?school property or missing school, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable when their kids commit crimes, such as dealing in drugs, weapons possession and gang banging.

More lawmakers are saying parents should be jailed or fined when their kids commit a crime, because the most important influence on the development of a child is the parent. But parenting is not an easy thing. And it gets harder as kids get older. When a child becomes a teenager, parents' involvement with their children under education drops sharply. By 15 to 16 years of age, children are treated as quasi-adults and many of them lead very separate life that parents are not fully informed of.

Parental liability laws will not work unless they're part of a much larger effort that includes more helps for parents in raising their children. Experts say what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws.

Tapescript:

In just about every state, parents are held responsible for certain misdeeds of their children, especially for school related, like destroying school property or missing school. But when kids commit crimes whether it's dealing in drugs, weapons possession or gang banging, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable. Now in the wake of the Colorado shootings, more lawmakers are saying parents should be jailed or fined when their kids commit a crime. And there seems to be a certain logic to this trend. The most important influence on the development of a child is the parent.

What people really want is good parenting. The question is. Can state legislatures legislate good parenting?

"How do you legislate good parenting? And how far should we go with that?"

There should be a law that does punish parents for leaving a loaded gun around accessible for children.

"That's something you can hold me accountable for. But when you tell me I should raise a child in a way.., in a way that that child will not have bad thoughts or be depressed, or not hang around with the wrong kids, you are trying to legislate something that you know... Parenting is not an easy thing. This is a hard job."

And it gets harder as kids get older. Study shows that when a child becomes a teenager, parents' involvement with their children under education drops sharply. This complicates matters with the courts if they are to prove that parents should have known about the child's intentions to commit a crime or stop the child from doing it.

By 15 to 16 years of age, children in this country are treated as quasi-adults.

"We also have young people of that age leading very separate life that parents are not fully informed of. Many of those young people are working. They have a strong peer group affiliation. Perhaps we might have some idealistic view that a law will then force parents to hold daily sessions with their children, ask them what they are doing. I just don't think that's going to work."

Parent liability laws will not work unless they're part of a much larger effort that includes more help for parents in raising their children, whether they want it or not.

"A judge can require a parent to go through psychological testing if the judge sees that there would be some merit not only in helping the child in their situation, but also helping the home situation."

According to the National Association of State Legislatures, half a dozen states are expected to take up the issue of parental liability this year. Family law experts say that what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws, before more putting in place, because as far, they simply don't seem to be deterring school shootings, let alone bad parenting.

Part III Innocents in danger

Vocabulary:

vulnerable / pedophile / lure / allude / desensitize / contraband / bigotry / intolerance / cult / law enforcement / predator / crackpot / empower

Innocents in Danger

Summary

Internet communication can be dangerous for adults, and children are even more vulnerable. According to Perry, the problem is that children use the Internet and far more often know more about it than their parents do. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just don't understand it well enough to set the rules.

One of the goals of UNESCO is to make sure all children have access to the Internet, and yet in doing this we want to make sure they have access safely. It is a huge task. It is a worldwide problem and that is the reason why our action has to be global and international. And there is one other aspect regarding hate email or hate websites. The biggest danger obviously is not from information, but from people who want to hurt children.

What we need to do is to control child pornography, to make sure that law enforcement does what they can to clean up the criminal activities online, to help schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet, and to arm parents with the tools they need to educate their children and keep them safe.

Tapescript:

Internet communication can be dangerous for adults, and children are even more vulnerable. Amara Selier and Perry Afton work with an organization called "Innocents in Danger. ' It's a world citizen's movement to protect children from sexual abuse and pedophilia on the Internet.

"Perry, it would seem that in the United States there would be lots of laws protecting children against abuse on the Internet."

"Well, there are laws to protect children from abuse, online and off line; they apply equally in both places. The problem is that children use the Internet and far more often know more about it than their parents do. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just d6n't understand it well enough to set the rules, for the pedophiles are using this technology and the fact that they can hide behind anonymity and pretend they're another child to lure our children in ways that we are not yet prepared to teach our children to avoid."

One of the goals of UNESCO is to make sure all children have access to the Internet, and yet in doing this you want to make sure they have access safely. It sounds like a huge task to get companies and countries involved in doing this.

"It is a huge task, I do agree with you. It is a worldwide problem and that is the reason why our action has to be global and international. I think even though it's a very big task, we are little by little going to get there, with everybody's help. '

"What are some of the other dangers, I mean, we've talked a little bit or alluded to child pornography, how does that impact children?"

"Often the pedophiles use child pornography to desensitize our children. So, if they're setting a conversation up, and they send a photo to a ten-year-old of another ten-year-old engaged in sexual activity, that ten-year-old now thinks that perhaps it's not so unusual and it's not so contraband for them to engage in sexual activity as well. And that's typically how it's used."

"And is... is there one other aspect regarding hate email or hate websites?"

"I think the dangerous ... the biggest danger obviously is not from information, but from people who want to hurt children. Uh, but there are hate sites and bigotry and intolerance, there are sites where children can order guns, and poison, and drugs, and tobacco and alcohol, there are sites that teach our children how to build bombs and unfortunately they are building bombs with this information, and there's a lot of misinformation and cults, and that is quite dangerous, I mean, in addition, we ... our children may be exposed to information that parents would prefer they're not exposed to. Because of this, what we need to do is to arm parents with the tools they need to educate their children and keep them safe, and make sure that law enforcement does what they can to clean up the criminal activities online."

"What are your specific tasks in the United States?"

"Three prongs are making sure that children are safe from predators: that we try to do what we can to control child pornography; we work closely with law enforcement; we get all of the Internet service providers and all of the Internet industry on board. And I should tell you that most of' them are there already as part of ... as committed members of the National Action Committee. We're also committed to helping schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet by learning how to use it and developing safety programs and education programs for parents so that parents will let their children be on the Internet and help them deal with the risks they'll face day to day from predators, and from kooks and crackpots and misinformation and hate that they will face, so that we're here to empower the parents to help keep the children safe."

Part IV Listen and relax

Tapescript:

Ken Schuler -- a husband, a father, and an artist. He also saved another person's life in the most remarkable way. Schuler is the first known person to step forward and donate part of his liver to a stranger. It happened like this. He heard this man plead for his daughter's life.

"I'm hoping that there'd be somebody out there that would be kind enough to help my daughter.' (Claude Smallwood, Debbie Parker's father)

Thirty-nine-year-old Debbie Parker's liver had been destroyed by hepatitis C. The wife and mother of three needed a liver transplant. Without one, she would die within days. Because the list for a liver from a cadaver was so long, doctors suggested a new, experimental option: a living-donor liver transplant. That is, a living person can give Debbie a piece of his or her liver.

"They said they were looking for a B-positive donor, which.., that's what I am. And as soon as I heard that, I looked at my wife and said, 'I would do that in a heartbeat,' got up, and made the phone call. We met in the waiting room, and we were both having blood work done. And that was probably ... probably one of the best days in my life.' (Ken Schuler, Liver donor)

"I tapped him on the shoulder, and I said, 'Are you Ken Schuler?' and he goes, 'Yes, I am,' and I said, 'I'm Debbie Parker.' And we just embraced right there, and the whole waiting room started crying.' (Debbie Parker, Liver recipient)

"I was trying to save somebody's life, and she was, you know, wanting me to... to save her life. And when somebody hugs you around the neck like that, it's.., it's.., it still gets to me thinking about it." (Ken Schuler)

But even at that point, they couldn't be sure if Ken would qualify as a donor. Earlier, Debbie's brother had come forward to be a donor, but he did not qualify medically.

"It is a highly risky ... it's a risky operation." (Dr. Amadeo Marcos, Medical College of Virginia)

Dr. Amadeo Marcos did the first unrelated living-donor liver transplant a year ago and has done 27 since then. Most have been between husbands and wives.

"We were forced to do this technique, because we don't...

we ourselves did not have enough livers for our own list, and our patients were ... were dying." (Dr. Amadeo Marcos)

There are only a handful of centers in the United States offering living-donor liver transplants in adults. If more widely used, doctors say, it's an option that can make a significant dent in the organ shortage. But, ethically, can you ask someone to undertake the risk of donating part of their liver?

"I think you can. I don't think it's unethical to have a wife volunteer to have a piece of her liver given to her child or to her husband. It's probably not even unethical to do it for friends." (Dr. Arthur Caplan, Center for bioethics)

"But you are operating on a healthy person who doesn't have anything wrong with him, and I think we should always remember that." (Dr. Thomas Heffron, Emory and Egleston-Scottish Right Transplant Program)

Ken Schuler says he was not concerned about the possible risk of dying or becoming disabled. One week after Ken gave part of his liver to Debbie, his liver regenerated, or grew back to its original size.

"He's my life preserver. He doesn't like me to call him a hero, so I call him my life preserver." (Debbie Parker)

"What does it feel like to be able to do that for another person like that?" (CNN Reporter)

"Oh, this is the hard part. It's ... it's the best thing, you know, I've ever done. It... it gives you a feeling that you can't describe. And the more people, excuse me, the more people we can get to ... to do this ... They ... they don't understand what they're missing. ' (Ken Schuler)

Missing the chance to save another person's life.
感谢大耳朵网友"单纯de幸福"提供的听力原文 Unit 7 Love and Help (I) Part I Warming up Problems in 1940s Problems now 1. talking in class drug abuse 2 chewing gum alcohol abuse 3 making noise teen pregnancy 4 running in the halls suicide 5 cutting in line rape 6 dress code violations robbery 7 littering assault Tapescript: In the 1940s, the top seven problems for the U. S. schoolchildren were: 1. talking in class; 2. chewing gum; 3. making noise; 4. running in the halls; 5. cutting in line; 6. dress code violations; 7. littering. Today's youngsters in the U.S. schools face a set of seven problems that are much more shocking: 1. drug abuse; 2. alcohol abuse; 3. teen pregnancy; 4. suicide; 5. rape; 6. robbery; 7. assault. B. Outline I. Violent crime A. Including robbery, assault, murder, rape B. Murder rate: twice as high as 30 years ago C. Violent crime rate in general: increased 23% (in the same time period) II. White-collar crime A. Including embezzlement, bribery, Political corruption, corporate policies that endanger workers and the public B. White-collar crime rate in general: increased III. Solutions: A. Family: through socialization -- leading children to respect themselves, others, and the values of the society B. Government. 1. By helping people to feel that they are part of the society instead of its victims 2. By instilling the fear of punishment in those who might become criminals Tapescript: Looking into crime and violence in the United States is like opening the proverbial can of worms. So many different problems emerge from the can that you sometimes feel the more you know, the less you understand. What is very clear and indisputable, however, is that violent crime has increased greatly in the United States in recent decades. By violent crime, I mean crimes like robbery, assault, murder, and rape. The murder rate is twice as high as 30 years ago, and violent crime in general has increased 23 percent in the same time period. What is also clear is that the general public is afraid -- afraid of becoming victims of violent crime. Statistics are harder to come by for white-collar crime, crimes including embezzlement, bribery, political corruption, and corporate policies that endanger workers and the public. But many experts agree that there has been an increase in white-collar crime, too. As for solutions, I think most of us would agree that the family can play a role in reducing crime in the United States: through socialization, which leads children to respect themselves, others, and the values of their society. Moreover, I think society, in the form of government, has a role to play in reducing crime: by helping people to feel that they are part of the society instead of its victims. The government, in the form of the justice system, can also contribute to curbing crime by instilling the fear of punishment in those who might become criminals. C. 1. Despite a 20% decline in the number of malnourished children in the world by 2020, 132 million will still be underfed. 2. The cost of cutting child malnutrition in half by 2020 would be an extra 10 billion dollars a year. 3. Twenty-five billion dollars are now invested in developing countries annually to boost farm productivity, secure clean water sources, develop world infrastructure, and improve education and health. 4. Latin America will virtually eliminate child malnutrition by 2020. China will cut child malnutrition in half. 5. India will continue to have one third of the world's underfed children by 2020. And Africa will see an 18% increase unless action is taken. Tapescript: A new food policy study predicts slowing progress against child's malnutrition over the next 20 years unless governments take more aggressive action. The International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington says international efforts to reduce the number of malnourished children in the world have been awfully inadequate. It predicts that despite a 20 percent decline in the number of malnourished children by 2020, 132 million will still be underfed. The cost of cutting child malnutrition in half by 2020 would be an extra 10 billion dollars a year. Twenty-five billion dollars are now invested in developing countries annually to boost farm productivity, secure clean water sources, develop world infrastructure, and improve education and health. Ten billion dollars more is a scant amount. Not all regions face equally bleak food futures, Latin America will virtually eliminate child malnutrition by 2020, and China will cut it in haft. But the Food Policy Organization says India will continue to have one third of the world's underfed children. And Africa will see an 18 percent increase unless action is taken. D. Read the following difficult sentences and listen. 1. But when kids commit crimes whether it's dealing in drugs, weapons possession or gang banging, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable. 2. Family law experts say that what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws, before more putting in place, because as far, they simply don't seem to be deterring school shootings, let alone bad parenting. 3. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just don't understand it well enough to set the rules, for the pedophiles are using this technology and the fact that they can hide behind the anonymity and pretend they're another child to lure our children in ways that we are not yet prepared to teach our children to avoid. 4. We're also committed to helping schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet by learning how to use it and developing safety programs and education programs for parents so that parents will let their children be on the Internet and help them deal with the risks they'll face day to day from predators, and from kooks and crackpots and misinformation and hate that they will face, so that we're here to empower the parents to help keep the children safe. Part II Love and help A. 1. What are the two aspects mentioned concerning the nature of gambling addicts? --Coming from homes lacking love / looking for wants of family love and parental approval --Unconsciously wanting to lose 3. In what ways can gambling addicts hopefully be cured? --By psychiatric treatment --By word therapy --By help from organizations like "Gamblers Anonymous" Tapescript: Compulsive gamblers almost always come from homes lacking (in) love. As a result, the child grows up still looking for the wants of family love and parental approval. Another aspect to the nature of the gambling addict is that unconsciously he wants to lose. Psychiatrists believe that compulsive gamblers consciously may expect to win. However, there's a strong element of self-destruction in an inclination to continue betting until all is lost. One New York psychiatrist believes that basically the compulsive gambler is seeking an answer to the question: Do you love me? By winning, he receives a "yes" answer. However the gambler cannot accept the "yes" he sometimes receives because it is contrary to the reality of his or her unhappy childhood, one lacking (in) family love. The gambler's compelled to continue betting, thus expressing again and again his need for love and acceptance. When gambling addicts do win some money, they rarely spend any of it on their families. Money is like a sacred thing to the addicts. It is reserved for one thing: placing a bet. Fortunately, there's hope and help today for gambling addicts. Psychiatric treatment is one possibility. Word therapy seems to help in some cases. The most readily available and the least expensive help comes from an organization called "Gamblers Anonymous" (GA). GA has more than 90 chapters in the U.S. with about 3,000 gamblers seeking a cure. One basic rule of GA is the gamblers must pay back all their debts, even it takes many years to do so. Thousands of members credit GA with saving them from their addiction, and helping them to build new lives free from the gambling sickness. Happily, today, with more public interest in helping the gambling addict overcome his problem, and with such organizations as the GA, the gambler who wants help to break his addiction, now has some place or some one to turn to. B. Summary Though in almost all the states in America, parents are held responsible for their kids' misdeeds at schools like destroying ?school property or missing school, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable when their kids commit crimes, such as dealing in drugs, weapons possession and gang banging. More lawmakers are saying parents should be jailed or fined when their kids commit a crime, because the most important influence on the development of a child is the parent. But parenting is not an easy thing. And it gets harder as kids get older. When a child becomes a teenager, parents' involvement with their children under education drops sharply. By 15 to 16 years of age, children are treated as quasi-adults and many of them lead very separate life that parents are not fully informed of. Parental liability laws will not work unless they're part of a much larger effort that includes more helps for parents in raising their children. Experts say what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws. Tapescript: In just about every state, parents are held responsible for certain misdeeds of their children, especially for school related, like destroying school property or missing school. But when kids commit crimes whether it's dealing in drugs, weapons possession or gang banging, only 13 states hold parents criminally liable. Now in the wake of the Colorado shootings, more lawmakers are saying parents should be jailed or fined when their kids commit a crime. And there seems to be a certain logic to this trend. The most important influence on the development of a child is the parent. What people really want is good parenting. The question is. Can state legislatures legislate good parenting? "How do you legislate good parenting? And how far should we go with that?" There should be a law that does punish parents for leaving a loaded gun around accessible for children. "That's something you can hold me accountable for. But when you tell me I should raise a child in a way.., in a way that that child will not have bad thoughts or be depressed, or not hang around with the wrong kids, you are trying to legislate something that you know... Parenting is not an easy thing. This is a hard job." And it gets harder as kids get older. Study shows that when a child becomes a teenager, parents' involvement with their children under education drops sharply. This complicates matters with the courts if they are to prove that parents should have known about the child's intentions to commit a crime or stop the child from doing it. By 15 to 16 years of age, children in this country are treated as quasi-adults. "We also have young people of that age leading very separate life that parents are not fully informed of. Many of those young people are working. They have a strong peer group affiliation. Perhaps we might have some idealistic view that a law will then force parents to hold daily sessions with their children, ask them what they are doing. I just don't think that's going to work." Parent liability laws will not work unless they're part of a much larger effort that includes more help for parents in raising their children, whether they want it or not. "A judge can require a parent to go through psychological testing if the judge sees that there would be some merit not only in helping the child in their situation, but also helping the home situation." According to the National Association of State Legislatures, half a dozen states are expected to take up the issue of parental liability this year. Family law experts say that what's most needed now is a thorough review of the effectiveness of such laws, before more putting in place, because as far, they simply don't seem to be deterring school shootings, let alone bad parenting. Part III Innocents in danger Vocabulary: vulnerable / pedophile / lure / allude / desensitize / contraband / bigotry / intolerance / cult / law enforcement / predator / crackpot / empower Innocents in Danger Summary Internet communication can be dangerous for adults, and children are even more vulnerable. According to Perry, the problem is that children use the Internet and far more often know more about it than their parents do. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just don't understand it well enough to set the rules. One of the goals of UNESCO is to make sure all children have access to the Internet, and yet in doing this we want to make sure they have access safely. It is a huge task. It is a worldwide problem and that is the reason why our action has to be global and international. And there is one other aspect regarding hate email or hate websites. The biggest danger obviously is not from information, but from people who want to hurt children. What we need to do is to control child pornography, to make sure that law enforcement does what they can to clean up the criminal activities online, to help schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet, and to arm parents with the tools they need to educate their children and keep them safe. Tapescript: Internet communication can be dangerous for adults, and children are even more vulnerable. Amara Selier and Perry Afton work with an organization called "Innocents in Danger. ' It's a world citizen's movement to protect children from sexual abuse and pedophilia on the Internet. "Perry, it would seem that in the United States there would be lots of laws protecting children against abuse on the Internet." "Well, there are laws to protect children from abuse, online and off line; they apply equally in both places. The problem is that children use the Internet and far more often know more about it than their parents do. But, the things we usually use to teach our children how to stay safe in shopping malls, and on streets and in life, don't ordinarily apply online, because parents just d6n't understand it well enough to set the rules, for the pedophiles are using this technology and the fact that they can hide behind anonymity and pretend they're another child to lure our children in ways that we are not yet prepared to teach our children to avoid." One of the goals of UNESCO is to make sure all children have access to the Internet, and yet in doing this you want to make sure they have access safely. It sounds like a huge task to get companies and countries involved in doing this. "It is a huge task, I do agree with you. It is a worldwide problem and that is the reason why our action has to be global and international. I think even though it's a very big task, we are little by little going to get there, with everybody's help. ' "What are some of the other dangers, I mean, we've talked a little bit or alluded to child pornography, how does that impact children?" "Often the pedophiles use child pornography to desensitize our children. So, if they're setting a conversation up, and they send a photo to a ten-year-old of another ten-year-old engaged in sexual activity, that ten-year-old now thinks that perhaps it's not so unusual and it's not so contraband for them to engage in sexual activity as well. And that's typically how it's used." "And is... is there one other aspect regarding hate email or hate websites?" "I think the dangerous ... the biggest danger obviously is not from information, but from people who want to hurt children. Uh, but there are hate sites and bigotry and intolerance, there are sites where children can order guns, and poison, and drugs, and tobacco and alcohol, there are sites that teach our children how to build bombs and unfortunately they are building bombs with this information, and there's a lot of misinformation and cults, and that is quite dangerous, I mean, in addition, we ... our children may be exposed to information that parents would prefer they're not exposed to. Because of this, what we need to do is to arm parents with the tools they need to educate their children and keep them safe, and make sure that law enforcement does what they can to clean up the criminal activities online." "What are your specific tasks in the United States?" "Three prongs are making sure that children are safe from predators: that we try to do what we can to control child pornography; we work closely with law enforcement; we get all of the Internet service providers and all of the Internet industry on board. And I should tell you that most of' them are there already as part of ... as committed members of the National Action Committee. We're also committed to helping schools and teachers and libraries to get the most out of the Internet by learning how to use it and developing safety programs and education programs for parents so that parents will let their children be on the Internet and help them deal with the risks they'll face day to day from predators, and from kooks and crackpots and misinformation and hate that they will face, so that we're here to empower the parents to help keep the children safe." Part IV Listen and relax Tapescript: Ken Schuler -- a husband, a father, and an artist. He also saved another person's life in the most remarkable way. Schuler is the first known person to step forward and donate part of his liver to a stranger. It happened like this. He heard this man plead for his daughter's life. "I'm hoping that there'd be somebody out there that would be kind enough to help my daughter.' (Claude Smallwood, Debbie Parker's father) Thirty-nine-year-old Debbie Parker's liver had been destroyed by hepatitis C. The wife and mother of three needed a liver transplant. Without one, she would die within days. Because the list for a liver from a cadaver was so long, doctors suggested a new, experimental option: a living-donor liver transplant. That is, a living person can give Debbie a piece of his or her liver. "They said they were looking for a B-positive donor, which.., that's what I am. And as soon as I heard that, I looked at my wife and said, 'I would do that in a heartbeat,' got up, and made the phone call. We met in the waiting room, and we were both having blood work done. And that was probably ... probably one of the best days in my life.' (Ken Schuler, Liver donor) "I tapped him on the shoulder, and I said, 'Are you Ken Schuler?' and he goes, 'Yes, I am,' and I said, 'I'm Debbie Parker.' And we just embraced right there, and the whole waiting room started crying.' (Debbie Parker, Liver recipient) "I was trying to save somebody's life, and she was, you know, wanting me to... to save her life. And when somebody hugs you around the neck like that, it's.., it's.., it still gets to me thinking about it." (Ken Schuler) But even at that point, they couldn't be sure if Ken would qualify as a donor. Earlier, Debbie's brother had come forward to be a donor, but he did not qualify medically. "It is a highly risky ... it's a risky operation." (Dr. Amadeo Marcos, Medical College of Virginia) Dr. Amadeo Marcos did the first unrelated living-donor liver transplant a year ago and has done 27 since then. Most have been between husbands and wives. "We were forced to do this technique, because we don't... we ourselves did not have enough livers for our own list, and our patients were ... were dying." (Dr. Amadeo Marcos) There are only a handful of centers in the United States offering living-donor liver transplants in adults. If more widely used, doctors say, it's an option that can make a significant dent in the organ shortage. But, ethically, can you ask someone to undertake the risk of donating part of their liver? "I think you can. I don't think it's unethical to have a wife volunteer to have a piece of her liver given to her child or to her husband. It's probably not even unethical to do it for friends." (Dr. Arthur Caplan, Center for bioethics) "But you are operating on a healthy person who doesn't have anything wrong with him, and I think we should always remember that." (Dr. Thomas Heffron, Emory and Egleston-Scottish Right Transplant Program) Ken Schuler says he was not concerned about the possible risk of dying or becoming disabled. One week after Ken gave part of his liver to Debbie, his liver regenerated, or grew back to its original size. "He's my life preserver. He doesn't like me to call him a hero, so I call him my life preserver." (Debbie Parker) "What does it feel like to be able to do that for another person like that?" (CNN Reporter) "Oh, this is the hard part. It's ... it's the best thing, you know, I've ever done. It... it gives you a feeling that you can't describe. And the more people, excuse me, the more people we can get to ... to do this ... They ... they don't understand what they're missing. ' (Ken Schuler) Missing the chance to save another person's life.
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