step by step 2000第四册unit04

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感谢大耳朵网友"insa"提供的听力原文

Unit 4 Work and Workforce

Part I Warming up

A.

Category Why

1 Reentry women Wanting to go back to. work

2 People who have dead- Wanting a Career with a tot more

end jobs earning potential

3 People who have Careers Burned out

Looking for some kind of transition into another industry

4. People who see their industry dry up and shrink

Wanting transition into the computer industry

4 People who are happy in their jobs

Gaining more computer expertise in order to advance

Planning on staying in their jobs

Tapescript:

I- Ivy K- Kate

(Ivy Miller interviews Kate Bellow about a program that retains women for computer jobs. And why:)

I. We've kind of gone over the range, but could you tell us who generally takes this program? You have 30 students, you get to know them, I guess, fairly well.

K: I do.

I: Who ... who are these people?

K: Basically they fall into I would say five categories. We still have the reentry woman, the woman who's been at home raising her kids, and has decided she needs to or wants to go back to work. I was that category when I went through the program; I'm a graduate of the program.

Then we have people who have jobs. They're dead-end jobs, they're not using their intelligence, and they really want a career with a lot more earning potential.

We get people who have careers, their first careers, the things that they trained for -- they're teachers, nurses, med techs, and they're totally burned out, and they're looking for some kind of transition into another industry.

We also get those who are seeing their industry dry up and shrink. I get a lot of people out of "the oil patch"-petroleum engineers and geophysicists who say, "Hey, I don't want to move to Houston; I'd like to stay in Denver. ' And so they're ... they have decided that they want to transition into the computer industry.

And then we also get some people who're really happy in their jobs, they're doing exactly what they want except because the computer is taking over, they need to gain more computer expertise in order to advance, and so they're planning on staying in their jobs.

B.

Job Key words

Speaker 1 Psychologist listening / talk / problems / patients

/ progress / turn life around

Speaker 2 Camp counselor kids / problems / win trust / open up /develop confidence & self-worth / summer

Speaker 3 Firefighter burning / smoke / get people out /

dangerous

Tapescript:

1. Psychologist

Maybe the biggest challenge for me is listening to people talk about all their problems. At the end of the day, I'm usually pretty worn out. At times, it can be depressing as well. On the other hand, I do see patients making real progress. It's great to see someone really turn their life around and get on top of a problem that they thought they never could deal with.

2. Camp counselor

As a camp counselor, it's difficult to find a way to get through to kids with problems and win their trust. Sometimes kids are very suspicious and find it hard to trust an adult -- even a young adult. So getting them to open up is the hardest part. Once you've done that, they almost become different people. One of the things I find most rewarding is seeing kids develop confidence and a sense of self-worth. It's especially great to see that happen in a kid who started out the summer with low self-esteem.

3. Firefighter

It sounds pretty obvious, but in my job, the biggest challenge is going into a burning building that's full of smoke when you can barely see a few inches in front of you. It's really difficult -- especially when you know there are people in there, and it's your job to get them out. Once you do get someone out safely, then you feel really great and you forget about how dangerous the work is.

C.

Speaker 1 forming his own music group

(Justin) recording album / making music video

breaking into music scene in a big way

Speaker 2 being a doctor

(Sophia) working first overseas then back home

in a hospital

Speaker 3 being a model

(Rachel) starting her own modeling agency

Tapescript:

1. Justin

What do I hope I'll have achieved by the time I'm 30? Well, I hope I'll have made a successful career in the music industry. Right now, I play in a band and I'd love to be able to do that professionally. I plan to form a group of my own in a few years. Once we get known, we'll record an album- and make music videos, of course- and try to break into the music scene in a big way.

2. Sophia

I plan to be a doctor. When I've graduated from med school and finished with my interning, I want to work overseas for a few years. I'll probably work in a developing country with an organization like UNICEF. After that, I'll come back home and work in a hospital. I don't really care if I make a lot of money or not, but I do want to work somewhere where I feel I can make a difference.

3. Rachel

I'm planning to be a model. I've already had some modeling experience, and after I graduate, I'm going to see if I can get a job with an agency in New York or Los Angeles. I'll probably work as a model for ten years or so, and then I hope to start a modeling agency of my own.

D. Read the following difficult sentences and listen.

1. An increased level of stress affects us physically by producing certain changes in the body such as increased heart or breathing rate, dilation of the pupils, or our blood pressure and sugar level can go up.

2. It seems these days we're constantly listening to each other complain about being stressed out and feeling a variety of these responses which you've just mentioned.

Part II Americans at Work

A.

B.

Americans at Work

I. Introduction

II American workforce

A. Distributions

B. Working women

1. Working females aged 16 and over -- 58%

2. Mothers with children under 18 -- 67%

III. Work ethic

A. Definition of strong work ethic

B. Most Americans -- with a strong work ethic

C. Reason for not working harder -- not feeling they will benefit from the work

Tapescript.

The topic of work in the United States is an interesting one because the statistics do not always agree with popular general impressions about American workers and the American economy. I will try to reconcile these impressions with what we know from some recent statistics. To get you warmed up, let me give you a few questions to think about before I start the first point of our lecture today: Do you think most Americans work in factories that produce goods for domestic use and exportation? Do you think most American women are housewives, or do most of them work outside the home? Do you think people in the United States work hard? If time permits, I'll deal with each of these points in today's lecture.

So, then, where do most people in the United States work? If you thought in the manufacturing sector, in other words in factories, you were wrong. It is true that the United States is, and is seen as, a strong industrial power, but the statistics reveal that another branch of the economy is even stronger than manufacturing. Instead of dealing with the large figures required when discussing a total U.S. workforce of 125 million people, let's take a look at 100 hypothetical workers and See where they're employed. Of those 100 workers, 16 work in manufacturing, that is, in producing goods. Another 4 work in construction, and 3 work in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. And 1 out of 100 workers is employed in mining. You might find the figures for manufacturing and agriculture surprisingly low, and in a sense they are. The United States is in fact a leading producer of manufactured goods and agricultural products in the world; however, a surprisingly small number of workers, 16 out of'100 for manufacturing, and only 2 per hundred for agriculture alone, is responsible for this output. The above figures account for 24 of the 100 hypothetical workers we started with. Where do the other 76 work?

Well, a full 76 are employed in what are called the service industries. By the way, the term industry often applies purely to production, or manufacturing. Today, however, I will use industry in its more general sense, any general business activity. Service industries, then, include a wide variety of businesses that provide services rather than produce goods. You know the difference between goods and services, don't you?

Let's take a look at the different sectors of the service industries now. Of 76'workers in the service industries, 25 are employed in community, social, and personal services. Community, social, and personal services include doctors' offices, private hospitals, hotels, computer programming and data processing companies, restaurants, repair shops, engineering companies, and private research facilities. The next largest sector in the service industries, wholesale and retail trade, employs 23 of the 76 people. Wholesale trade involves purchases directly from the producer, while retail trade is more familiar to us. purchases from department stores, supermarkets, automobile dealerships, and so on.

The next largest sector in the service industries, the government, employs 17 of those 100 hypothetical workers we started with. The best-known government workers are teachers, police, and postal workers, but this sector also includes government officials and administrators, of course. The next sector is finance, insurance,' and real estate, in other words, banks and the stock market, some 5,500 insurance companies, and companies involved in the buying and selling of property. Six of every 100 workers are employed in finance, insurance, and real estate. The last service sector is transportation, communication, and utilities. What does the phrase "transportation, communication, and utilities" make you think of? If you thought of airlines, roads, and railroads for transportation, you are correct. Communication, of course, includes newspapers, magazines, and books as well as TV and radio broadcasting. And utilities, as you probably know, are companies that provide us with gas, water, and electricity. In the United States, these jobs are not part of the government services as they are in many countries; transportation, communication, and utilities are provided by private companies and account for 5 of the 100 workers we began with. Before we leave our first topic, let's check to make sure you have all the figures for the 76 workers in the service industries; 25 in community, social, and personal services; 23 in wholesale and retail trade; 17 in government; 6 in finance, insurance, and real estate; and last, 5 in transportation, communication, and utilities.

Before I discuss the work ethic, I'd like to make a slight digression and get back to the question of working women. Would you be surprised if I said that most of the female population aged 16 and over work? As a matter of fact, the actual figure is 58 percent. The figure for mothers with children under 18 years of age is even higher. 67 percent. That two thirds of mothers are employed certainly has an economic impact on the country and no doubt influences to some extent the character of the American family. But we'll look at that in a later lecture.

Now that we've taken care of that digression, let's talk about our last topic: the work ethic. I asked You earlier if you felt people in the United States worked hard. Well, I'm not sure what your opinion is, but a strong work ethic means that workers take their work seriously. Workers with a strong work ethic feel an obligation to work hard, expect little time for recreation, and take pride in doing their job well. According to surveys, most Americans do have a strong work ethic, that is, they feel they should work hard. The problem is that they do not always do so. And the reason they give for not working harder is that they don't feel they will benefit from the work. Others -- like the owners of the company -- will benefit instead.

Part III Stress management

Program. Talk of the Day

Today's topic: Stress and how to manage it

Guest speaker: Dr. Elizabeth Sander (a medical doctor & writer) Definition of stress. A physical or psychological response to the demands that we're placing on ourselves

Caller: Judy

Question 1: Any warning signs?

Answer: Some of the most common warning signs:

fatigue / listlessness / sleeping problems / a loss of appetite / sudden stomach disorders / heart palpitations

Question 2: Ways to make life less stressful?

Answer: Taking effective steps:

Becoming aware of potentially stressful situations and avoiding them

Reducing workload and organizing the work in a better way

Getting proper rest and exercise

Finding a balance between work and play

Tapescript:

H -- Host D -- Dr. Sander J -- Judy

H: Good morning, and welcome to "Talk of the Day." Do you often find that you're trying to accomplish more in a day than is humanly possible? Do you have trouble falling asleep at night because you can't stop thinking about yesterday's activities or planning tomorrow's? Do you find yourself spending too much time at work without enough time for leisure activities? Today our topic is stress and how to manage it. Tell us about the level of stress in your life and how you cope with it, or call us with your questions. With us to help answer some of the questions you may have is Dr. Elizabeth Sander, a medical doctor and writer of a best-selling book on stress management. She has also conducted numerous workshops designed to teach people how to identify and prevent stress. Good morning Dr. 'Sander and thank you for joining us today.

D: Thank you for having me.

H.. Dr, Sander, before we take our first call, perhaps you could just tell us what exactly we mean by "stress. ' We hear the word being used so much today. What is stress?

D: Yes, that's a very good question. Actually, stress can be either a physical or psychological response, or both, to the demands that we're placing on ourselves. An increased level of stress affects us physically by producing certain changes in the body such as increased heart or breathing rate, dilation of the pupils, or our blood pressure and sugar level can go up. These are normally responses that are designed to help us, for example, when we're in danger, but which under other circumstances, for example, when we have a deadline to meet for a project at work, don't really benefit us. Psychologically, we respond to these demands by becoming nervous, irritable, depressed, or even angry.

H: Yes, it seems these days we're constantly listening to each other complain about being stressed out and feeling a variety of these responses which you've just mentioned. Well, let's see what kind of stress level our callers have. Let's take a call from Judy in Fallbrook.

J. Yes, hello, thank you for taking my call. This is a great topic. You know, I have so many friends who are always complaining about being stressed out. I just don't understand it. I just don't understand what it means to be stressed out. And it seems that I'm just as busy as they are if not more so, Maybe I'm really stressed and just don't realize it. Are there certain warning signs that I can be on the lookout for that will tell me I've reached a dangerous level of stress?

D. That's a great question and yes, many people are at dangerous levels of stress without realizing it or they just don't want to admit it because they're afraid that they would have to change something in their life. Some of the most common warning signs are fatigue, listlessness, sleeping problems -- either you can't fall asleep at night or you wake up throughout the night; you may have a loss of appetite or sudden stomach disorders, and heart palpitations are quite common. So one of the key issues is to help people realize that they are experiencing some of these problems associated with too much stress.

J. Well, as I said, many of my friends are aware of their situation, but it seems they never do anything about it. Are there ways that they can make their life less stressful?

D. Of course. There are steps that we can take to lower the amount of stress in our lives, but unfortunately many people are so caught up in the cycle of activity and stress that they don't stop to take these important steps. The most important step is that we become aware of potentially stressful situations and avoid them. We can also simply reduce our workload and organize the work that we do have in a better way. Another important step is to get the proper rest and exercise. If you're under a lot of stress to begin with, very often sleep or exercise can help to release some of that stress and prepare you to take on more. One of the worst things that can happen is to allow the stress to build up. Finally, one of the most effective steps we can take is to find a balance between work and play. In the U.S. it's been recently discovered that the average American is working more now than we did 20 years ago. We have become almost obsessed with work and we have a hard time enjoying ourselves anymore.

J: Yeah, that's definitely true. Thank you. That information is really helpful.

H. O.K. Let's take another call, from Lori in Ramona.

Part IV Listen and relax

Tapescript:

S -- Steve J -- Jim

S: Jim in Brighton, you're next on RKO.

J: Hi, Steve. Been listening to you.

S: Thanks. What kind of job do you do?

J: I am a postal worker and a mail carrier.

S: Oh. Do you like it?

J: I do. I like it very much.

S. Do you get -- now you said you're a mail carrier -- so you get out there.

J: I -- yes, every day.

S: Um hum. That part I think I would like 'cause I don't like being cooped up.

J: Yeah, I'm told, from when I got into the Postal Service in the beginning of 1988, that the carriers are the best job.

S: Um hum.

J. Because we're out there on the street, and we don't have anybody looking over our shoulders --

S. That's also --

J: -- for a whole eight hours.

S: Yup. You don't have those supervisors with you all that time.

J. We're only in there in the morning. And they're looking over your shoulder. But I work in Allston, and it's a very small station, and everybody's on a name -- a first-name --

S: Oh, that's good.

J: -- basis, and there's not a lot of stress there. If you want to do your job, you do it, and you do it well, and you don't complain a lot --

S: Um hum.

J: -- then it's really an easygoing job, and I do like it.

S: That's good. What do you think the best job would be -ever?

J: The best job of any in the world?

S: Yeah.

J: A food taster !

S: Hah! Yeah !

J: A traveling food taster, where everything's a junket.

S: Um hum.

J: That could be very nice.

S: That sounds pretty good. Now your job, obviously you like the outdoors. Do you feel that you like it a little less when those windy, wintry, snowy days come?

J: You get used to it, to tell you the truth. But the thing is the heat, in the summertime, gets me worse because in the winter you can always put more clothes on --

S: That's true.

J. -- but in the summer what are you going to do?

S. There's a limit to how much you can take off and still finish your route.

J: And if I could just add a little interdiction here. I married one of my customers.

S. No kidding.

J: Yes. It was one of those stories right out of the fairy tale books.

S: Now let me ask you this. Did she start lingering and happen to be around there around the time that you would come day after day?

J. No, no, actually. This is odd, but I met her on a Sunday, and as you know, postal -- there is no postal service on Sunday, and I met her on a Sunday just walking through the neighborhood where I deliver the mail, having seen other people who I'd known. And I was introduced to her as one of my other customers, and I would have probably never met her because her job hours are roughly the same as mine, so hadn't it been for a fluke, of walking around the neighborhood on a Sunday, we wouldn't have met.

S.- That's great.

J: Yeah.

S. And now she gets her mail right on time.

J. No, well, we have moved, so I'm no longer her mail carrier, but I'll always be her mail carrier. ( S laughs. )

J: But I like the job. I know, of course, in the news there's a lot of things about postal workers who go off, and that's always a sad thing to hear.

S.. Yeah, let me ask you that --

J. But where I am in, there's none of that kind of stress. I guess that I work in a small office. Everybody knows everybody, and there's not as much animosity.

S: Sure.

J. -- from self-respect, to begin with. But the person who doesn't like to go to work under any circumstances, they're not going to like their job even if it is the food taster on a junket.

S: You're right. It's the attitude, attitude is everything.

J: The attitude is first and foremost.

S.. Well, thanks for the call. I really appreciate it. Yeah, bye, bye.
感谢大耳朵网友"insa"提供的听力原文 Unit 4 Work and Workforce Part I Warming up A. Category Why 1 Reentry women Wanting to go back to. work 2 People who have dead- Wanting a Career with a tot more end jobs earning potential 3 People who have Careers Burned out Looking for some kind of transition into another industry 4. People who see their industry dry up and shrink Wanting transition into the computer industry 4 People who are happy in their jobs Gaining more computer expertise in order to advance Planning on staying in their jobs Tapescript: I- Ivy K- Kate (Ivy Miller interviews Kate Bellow about a program that retains women for computer jobs. And why:) I. We've kind of gone over the range, but could you tell us who generally takes this program? You have 30 students, you get to know them, I guess, fairly well. K: I do. I: Who ... who are these people? K: Basically they fall into I would say five categories. We still have the reentry woman, the woman who's been at home raising her kids, and has decided she needs to or wants to go back to work. I was that category when I went through the program; I'm a graduate of the program. Then we have people who have jobs. They're dead-end jobs, they're not using their intelligence, and they really want a career with a lot more earning potential. We get people who have careers, their first careers, the things that they trained for -- they're teachers, nurses, med techs, and they're totally burned out, and they're looking for some kind of transition into another industry. We also get those who are seeing their industry dry up and shrink. I get a lot of people out of "the oil patch"-petroleum engineers and geophysicists who say, "Hey, I don't want to move to Houston; I'd like to stay in Denver. ' And so they're ... they have decided that they want to transition into the computer industry. And then we also get some people who're really happy in their jobs, they're doing exactly what they want except because the computer is taking over, they need to gain more computer expertise in order to advance, and so they're planning on staying in their jobs. B. Job Key words Speaker 1 Psychologist listening / talk / problems / patients / progress / turn life around Speaker 2 Camp counselor kids / problems / win trust / open up /develop confidence & self-worth / summer Speaker 3 Firefighter burning / smoke / get people out / dangerous Tapescript: 1. Psychologist Maybe the biggest challenge for me is listening to people talk about all their problems. At the end of the day, I'm usually pretty worn out. At times, it can be depressing as well. On the other hand, I do see patients making real progress. It's great to see someone really turn their life around and get on top of a problem that they thought they never could deal with. 2. Camp counselor As a camp counselor, it's difficult to find a way to get through to kids with problems and win their trust. Sometimes kids are very suspicious and find it hard to trust an adult -- even a young adult. So getting them to open up is the hardest part. Once you've done that, they almost become different people. One of the things I find most rewarding is seeing kids develop confidence and a sense of self-worth. It's especially great to see that happen in a kid who started out the summer with low self-esteem. 3. Firefighter It sounds pretty obvious, but in my job, the biggest challenge is going into a burning building that's full of smoke when you can barely see a few inches in front of you. It's really difficult -- especially when you know there are people in there, and it's your job to get them out. Once you do get someone out safely, then you feel really great and you forget about how dangerous the work is. C. Speaker 1 forming his own music group (Justin) recording album / making music video breaking into music scene in a big way Speaker 2 being a doctor (Sophia) working first overseas then back home in a hospital Speaker 3 being a model (Rachel) starting her own modeling agency Tapescript: 1. Justin What do I hope I'll have achieved by the time I'm 30? Well, I hope I'll have made a successful career in the music industry. Right now, I play in a band and I'd love to be able to do that professionally. I plan to form a group of my own in a few years. Once we get known, we'll record an album- and make music videos, of course- and try to break into the music scene in a big way. 2. Sophia I plan to be a doctor. When I've graduated from med school and finished with my interning, I want to work overseas for a few years. I'll probably work in a developing country with an organization like UNICEF. After that, I'll come back home and work in a hospital. I don't really care if I make a lot of money or not, but I do want to work somewhere where I feel I can make a difference. 3. Rachel I'm planning to be a model. I've already had some modeling experience, and after I graduate, I'm going to see if I can get a job with an agency in New York or Los Angeles. I'll probably work as a model for ten years or so, and then I hope to start a modeling agency of my own. D. Read the following difficult sentences and listen. 1. An increased level of stress affects us physically by producing certain changes in the body such as increased heart or breathing rate, dilation of the pupils, or our blood pressure and sugar level can go up. 2. It seems these days we're constantly listening to each other complain about being stressed out and feeling a variety of these responses which you've just mentioned. Part II Americans at Work A. B. Americans at Work I. Introduction II American workforce A. Distributions B. Working women 1. Working females aged 16 and over -- 58% 2. Mothers with children under 18 -- 67% III. Work ethic A. Definition of strong work ethic B. Most Americans -- with a strong work ethic C. Reason for not working harder -- not feeling they will benefit from the work Tapescript. The topic of work in the United States is an interesting one because the statistics do not always agree with popular general impressions about American workers and the American economy. I will try to reconcile these impressions with what we know from some recent statistics. To get you warmed up, let me give you a few questions to think about before I start the first point of our lecture today: Do you think most Americans work in factories that produce goods for domestic use and exportation? Do you think most American women are housewives, or do most of them work outside the home? Do you think people in the United States work hard? If time permits, I'll deal with each of these points in today's lecture. So, then, where do most people in the United States work? If you thought in the manufacturing sector, in other words in factories, you were wrong. It is true that the United States is, and is seen as, a strong industrial power, but the statistics reveal that another branch of the economy is even stronger than manufacturing. Instead of dealing with the large figures required when discussing a total U.S. workforce of 125 million people, let's take a look at 100 hypothetical workers and See where they're employed. Of those 100 workers, 16 work in manufacturing, that is, in producing goods. Another 4 work in construction, and 3 work in agriculture, forestry, and fishing. And 1 out of 100 workers is employed in mining. You might find the figures for manufacturing and agriculture surprisingly low, and in a sense they are. The United States is in fact a leading producer of manufactured goods and agricultural products in the world; however, a surprisingly small number of workers, 16 out of'100 for manufacturing, and only 2 per hundred for agriculture alone, is responsible for this output. The above figures account for 24 of the 100 hypothetical workers we started with. Where do the other 76 work? Well, a full 76 are employed in what are called the service industries. By the way, the term industry often applies purely to production, or manufacturing. Today, however, I will use industry in its more general sense, any general business activity. Service industries, then, include a wide variety of businesses that provide services rather than produce goods. You know the difference between goods and services, don't you? Let's take a look at the different sectors of the service industries now. Of 76'workers in the service industries, 25 are employed in community, social, and personal services. Community, social, and personal services include doctors' offices, private hospitals, hotels, computer programming and data processing companies, restaurants, repair shops, engineering companies, and private research facilities. The next largest sector in the service industries, wholesale and retail trade, employs 23 of the 76 people. Wholesale trade involves purchases directly from the producer, while retail trade is more familiar to us. purchases from department stores, supermarkets, automobile dealerships, and so on. The next largest sector in the service industries, the government, employs 17 of those 100 hypothetical workers we started with. The best-known government workers are teachers, police, and postal workers, but this sector also includes government officials and administrators, of course. The next sector is finance, insurance,' and real estate, in other words, banks and the stock market, some 5,500 insurance companies, and companies involved in the buying and selling of property. Six of every 100 workers are employed in finance, insurance, and real estate. The last service sector is transportation, communication, and utilities. What does the phrase "transportation, communication, and utilities" make you think of? If you thought of airlines, roads, and railroads for transportation, you are correct. Communication, of course, includes newspapers, magazines, and books as well as TV and radio broadcasting. And utilities, as you probably know, are companies that provide us with gas, water, and electricity. In the United States, these jobs are not part of the government services as they are in many countries; transportation, communication, and utilities are provided by private companies and account for 5 of the 100 workers we began with. Before we leave our first topic, let's check to make sure you have all the figures for the 76 workers in the service industries; 25 in community, social, and personal services; 23 in wholesale and retail trade; 17 in government; 6 in finance, insurance, and real estate; and last, 5 in transportation, communication, and utilities. Before I discuss the work ethic, I'd like to make a slight digression and get back to the question of working women. Would you be surprised if I said that most of the female population aged 16 and over work? As a matter of fact, the actual figure is 58 percent. The figure for mothers with children under 18 years of age is even higher. 67 percent. That two thirds of mothers are employed certainly has an economic impact on the country and no doubt influences to some extent the character of the American family. But we'll look at that in a later lecture. Now that we've taken care of that digression, let's talk about our last topic: the work ethic. I asked You earlier if you felt people in the United States worked hard. Well, I'm not sure what your opinion is, but a strong work ethic means that workers take their work seriously. Workers with a strong work ethic feel an obligation to work hard, expect little time for recreation, and take pride in doing their job well. According to surveys, most Americans do have a strong work ethic, that is, they feel they should work hard. The problem is that they do not always do so. And the reason they give for not working harder is that they don't feel they will benefit from the work. Others -- like the owners of the company -- will benefit instead. Part III Stress management Program. Talk of the Day Today's topic: Stress and how to manage it Guest speaker: Dr. Elizabeth Sander (a medical doctor & writer) Definition of stress. A physical or psychological response to the demands that we're placing on ourselves Caller: Judy Question 1: Any warning signs? Answer: Some of the most common warning signs: fatigue / listlessness / sleeping problems / a loss of appetite / sudden stomach disorders / heart palpitations Question 2: Ways to make life less stressful? Answer: Taking effective steps: Becoming aware of potentially stressful situations and avoiding them Reducing workload and organizing the work in a better way Getting proper rest and exercise Finding a balance between work and play Tapescript: H -- Host D -- Dr. Sander J -- Judy H: Good morning, and welcome to "Talk of the Day." Do you often find that you're trying to accomplish more in a day than is humanly possible? Do you have trouble falling asleep at night because you can't stop thinking about yesterday's activities or planning tomorrow's? Do you find yourself spending too much time at work without enough time for leisure activities? Today our topic is stress and how to manage it. Tell us about the level of stress in your life and how you cope with it, or call us with your questions. With us to help answer some of the questions you may have is Dr. Elizabeth Sander, a medical doctor and writer of a best-selling book on stress management. She has also conducted numerous workshops designed to teach people how to identify and prevent stress. Good morning Dr. 'Sander and thank you for joining us today. D: Thank you for having me. H.. Dr, Sander, before we take our first call, perhaps you could just tell us what exactly we mean by "stress. ' We hear the word being used so much today. What is stress? D: Yes, that's a very good question. Actually, stress can be either a physical or psychological response, or both, to the demands that we're placing on ourselves. An increased level of stress affects us physically by producing certain changes in the body such as increased heart or breathing rate, dilation of the pupils, or our blood pressure and sugar level can go up. These are normally responses that are designed to help us, for example, when we're in danger, but which under other circumstances, for example, when we have a deadline to meet for a project at work, don't really benefit us. Psychologically, we respond to these demands by becoming nervous, irritable, depressed, or even angry. H: Yes, it seems these days we're constantly listening to each other complain about being stressed out and feeling a variety of these responses which you've just mentioned. Well, let's see what kind of stress level our callers have. Let's take a call from Judy in Fallbrook. J. Yes, hello, thank you for taking my call. This is a great topic. You know, I have so many friends who are always complaining about being stressed out. I just don't understand it. I just don't understand what it means to be stressed out. And it seems that I'm just as busy as they are if not more so, Maybe I'm really stressed and just don't realize it. Are there certain warning signs that I can be on the lookout for that will tell me I've reached a dangerous level of stress? D. That's a great question and yes, many people are at dangerous levels of stress without realizing it or they just don't want to admit it because they're afraid that they would have to change something in their life. Some of the most common warning signs are fatigue, listlessness, sleeping problems -- either you can't fall asleep at night or you wake up throughout the night; you may have a loss of appetite or sudden stomach disorders, and heart palpitations are quite common. So one of the key issues is to help people realize that they are experiencing some of these problems associated with too much stress. J. Well, as I said, many of my friends are aware of their situation, but it seems they never do anything about it. Are there ways that they can make their life less stressful? D. Of course. There are steps that we can take to lower the amount of stress in our lives, but unfortunately many people are so caught up in the cycle of activity and stress that they don't stop to take these important steps. The most important step is that we become aware of potentially stressful situations and avoid them. We can also simply reduce our workload and organize the work that we do have in a better way. Another important step is to get the proper rest and exercise. If you're under a lot of stress to begin with, very often sleep or exercise can help to release some of that stress and prepare you to take on more. One of the worst things that can happen is to allow the stress to build up. Finally, one of the most effective steps we can take is to find a balance between work and play. In the U.S. it's been recently discovered that the average American is working more now than we did 20 years ago. We have become almost obsessed with work and we have a hard time enjoying ourselves anymore. J: Yeah, that's definitely true. Thank you. That information is really helpful. H. O.K. Let's take another call, from Lori in Ramona. Part IV Listen and relax Tapescript: S -- Steve J -- Jim S: Jim in Brighton, you're next on RKO. J: Hi, Steve. Been listening to you. S: Thanks. What kind of job do you do? J: I am a postal worker and a mail carrier. S: Oh. Do you like it? J: I do. I like it very much. S. Do you get -- now you said you're a mail carrier -- so you get out there. J: I -- yes, every day. S: Um hum. That part I think I would like 'cause I don't like being cooped up. J: Yeah, I'm told, from when I got into the Postal Service in the beginning of 1988, that the carriers are the best job. S: Um hum. J. Because we're out there on the street, and we don't have anybody looking over our shoulders -- S. That's also -- J: -- for a whole eight hours. S: Yup. You don't have those supervisors with you all that time. J. We're only in there in the morning. And they're looking over your shoulder. But I work in Allston, and it's a very small station, and everybody's on a name -- a first-name -- S: Oh, that's good. J: -- basis, and there's not a lot of stress there. If you want to do your job, you do it, and you do it well, and you don't complain a lot -- S: Um hum. J: -- then it's really an easygoing job, and I do like it. S: That's good. What do you think the best job would be -ever? J: The best job of any in the world? S: Yeah. J: A food taster ! S: Hah! Yeah ! J: A traveling food taster, where everything's a junket. S: Um hum. J: That could be very nice. S: That sounds pretty good. Now your job, obviously you like the outdoors. Do you feel that you like it a little less when those windy, wintry, snowy days come? J: You get used to it, to tell you the truth. But the thing is the heat, in the summertime, gets me worse because in the winter you can always put more clothes on -- S: That's true. J. -- but in the summer what are you going to do? S. There's a limit to how much you can take off and still finish your route. J: And if I could just add a little interdiction here. I married one of my customers. S. No kidding. J: Yes. It was one of those stories right out of the fairy tale books. S: Now let me ask you this. Did she start lingering and happen to be around there around the time that you would come day after day? J. No, no, actually. This is odd, but I met her on a Sunday, and as you know, postal -- there is no postal service on Sunday, and I met her on a Sunday just walking through the neighborhood where I deliver the mail, having seen other people who I'd known. And I was introduced to her as one of my other customers, and I would have probably never met her because her job hours are roughly the same as mine, so hadn't it been for a fluke, of walking around the neighborhood on a Sunday, we wouldn't have met. S.- That's great. J: Yeah. S. And now she gets her mail right on time. J. No, well, we have moved, so I'm no longer her mail carrier, but I'll always be her mail carrier. ( S laughs. ) J: But I like the job. I know, of course, in the news there's a lot of things about postal workers who go off, and that's always a sad thing to hear. S.. Yeah, let me ask you that -- J. But where I am in, there's none of that kind of stress. I guess that I work in a small office. Everybody knows everybody, and there's not as much animosity. S: Sure. J. -- from self-respect, to begin with. But the person who doesn't like to go to work under any circumstances, they're not going to like their job even if it is the food taster on a junket. S: You're right. It's the attitude, attitude is everything. J: The attitude is first and foremost. S.. Well, thanks for the call. I really appreciate it. Yeah, bye, bye.
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