自考综合英语二 3A

樱花草 2006-11-17 5690 阅读
分享

Lesson Thirteen Who Shall Dwell?

H. C. Neal

dwell vi. 居住;生存

half-listen vi. 似听非听

shed n. 棚,小屋

abruptly adv. 突然地

bomb n. 炸弹

alert n. 警报

missile n. 导弹

launch v. 发射

head vt. 朝特定方向行进

verified adj. 经证实的

tune vt. 调整收音机至某一频率

ashen adj. 灰色的,灰白色的

blurt vi. 脱口而出

loathing n. 厌恶,憎恶

dispatch vt. 派遣,发送

nuclear adj. 原子核的,核的

weapon n. 武器

shelter n. 避难所

drill n. 军事训练;操练

rehearsal n. 演习,排练

bearing n. 举止,态度

youngster n. 儿童,少年

hustle vt. 催促,猛推

tersely adv. 简捷地;简要地

slide vt. 使滑动

headboard n. 床头板

crisp adj. 凉爽的

fall n. (美)秋天

latch vt. 用门闫关上

refuge n. 避难所

Christian n. 基督徒

showdown n. 摊牌

contend vt. 坚决主张;断言

religious adj. 宗教的

pap n. 无实质内容的东西

retort vi. 反驳,驳斥

primary adj. 主要的,首要的

protest vt. 反驳;申明;抗议

purify vt. 净化,使纯净

thy adj. (古)你的

ark n. 方舟

scoff vi. 嘲弄,嘲笑

sureness n. 千真万确,确实

pounding n. 重击声

urgent adj. 紧急的

ram n. 撞击工具,撞夯

batter vt. 捶打,击

reasonably adv. 合理地

relentlessly adv. 持续地

evenly adv. 平静地,冷静地

stun vt. 使震惊

plea n. 恳求,请求

thrust vt. 猛推,挤

hastily adv. 匆忙地,急切地

newcomer n. 新来者

marvel vi. 惊讶,惊异

unlatch vt. 打开(门闩)

surge vi. 涌来

block n. 阻塞,阻碍

shove vt. 推挤

bar vt. 闩(门窗等)

babble vi. 唠叨

incoherently adv. 语无伦次地;不连贯地

utterly adv. 完全地,彻底地

panic-stricken adj. 极度受惊的

grin vi. 露齿而笑

reassuringly adv. 安慰地

devotion n. 热爱,挚爱

blast v. 炸

eternity n. 永恒;不朽

Proper Names

H.C.Neal H•C•尼尔

Bible 《圣经》

Noah 诺亚

Useful Expressions

keep (radio) tuned for 收听(广播)

look … in the eye 直视,正视

be squared away 使……就绪

typical of ……是……的特征

make it plain 明确说明

warn sb. of 警告(某人)

see no need for 认为没有必要

can’t call oneself... 不称职

turn …out 轰出;开除

break down 推倒;克服(障碍)

  1 It came on a Sunday afternoon. They had prayed that it would never come, ever, but suddenly here it was.

  2 The father was resting on a couch and half-listening to some music on the radio. Mother was in the kitchen preparing dinner and the younger boy and girl were in the bedroom drawing pictures. The older boy was working in the shed out back.

  3 Suddenly the music was cut off. Then, the announcer almost shouted:

  4 "Bomb alert! Attention! A number of missiles have just been launched across the sea, heading this way. They are expected to strike within the next sixteen minutes. This is a verified alert! Take cover! Keep your radios tuned for further instructions."

  5 "My God!" the father gasped. His face was ashen, puzzled, as though he knew that this was real — but still could not quite believe it.

  6 "Get the children," his wife blurted, then dashed to the door to call the older boy. He stared at her a brief moment, seeing the fear in her face, but also a loathing for all men involved in the making and dispatch of nuclear weapons.

  7 The father jumped to his feet, and ran to the bedroom. "Let's go," he snapped, "shelter drill!" Although they had had many rehearsals, his voice and bearing sent the youngsters dashing for the door without a word.

  8 He hustled them through the kitchen to the rear door and sent them to the shelter. As he returned to the bedroom, the older boy came running in.

  9 "This is the hot one, son," said his father tersely, "the real one." He and the boy stared at each other a long moment, both knowing what must be done and each knowing the other would more than do his share, yet wondering still at the frightening fact that it must be done at all.

  10 "How much time have we got, dad?"

  11 "Not long," the father replied, glancing at his watch, "twelve, maybe fourteen minutes."

  12 The boy left. The father stepped to the closet, slid the door open and picked up the metal box containing their important papers. He then picked up the big family Bible from the headboard on the bed. Everything else they would need had been stored in the shelter the past several months. He heard his wife approaching and turned as she entered the room.

  13 "Ready, dear?" she asked.

  14 "Yes," he replied, "are the kids gone in?"

  15 "They're all down," she answered, "I still can't believe it's real."

  16 "We've got to believe it," he said, looking at her steadily in the eye, " we can't afford not to."

  17 Outside, the day was crisp and clear, typical of early fall. He looked at his watch again. Four minutes had elapsed since the first alarm. Twelve minutes, more or less, remained.

  18 Inside the shelter, he latched the door, and looked around to see that his family was squared away. Now it began. The waiting.

  19 The man and his wife knew that others would come soon, begging and crying to be taken in now that the time was here.

  20 They had argued about this when the shelter was being built. It was in her mind to share their refuge. "We can't call ourselves Christians and then deny safety to our friends when the showdown comes," she contended, "that isn't what God teaches."

  21 "That's nothing but religious pap," he retorted with a degree of anger. "God created the family as the basic unit of society," he reasoned. "That should make it plain that a man's primary Christian duty is to protect his family."

  22 "But don't you see?" she protested, "We must prepare to purify ourselves... to rise above this ‘ mine' thinking and be as God's own son, who said, ‘love thy neighbor.'"

  23 "No," he replied, "I can't buy that." Then, after a moment's thought, "It is my family I must save, no one more. You. These kids. Our friends are like the people of Noah's time: he warned them of the coming flood when he built the ark on God's command. He was ridiculed and scoffed at, just as we have been ridiculed. No,” and here his voice took on a new sad sureness, "it is meant that if they don't prepare, they die. I see no need for further argument."

  24 With seven minutes left, the first knock rang the shelter door.” Let us in! For God's sake."

  25 He recognized the voice. It was his first neighbor toward town.

  26 "No!" shouted the father, "There is only room for us. Go!"

  27 Again came the pounding. Louder. More urgent.

  28 "You let us in or we'll break down this door!" He wondered if they were actually getting a ram of some sort to batter at the door. He was reasonably certain it would hold.

  29 The seconds ticked relentlessly away. Four minutes left.

  30 His wife stared at the door and moaned slightly. "Steady, girl,” he said, evenly. The children looked at him, frightened, puzzled. He glared at his watch, ran his hands through his hair, and said nothing.

  31 Three minutes left.

  32 At that moment, a woman cried from the outside, "If you won't let me in, please take my baby, my little girl."

  33 He was stunned by her plea. What must I do? He asked himself in sheer agony. What man on earth could deny a child the chance to live?

  34 At that point, his wife rose, and stepped to the door. Before he could move to stop her, she let down the latch and dashed outside. Instantly a three-year-old girl was thrust into the shelter. He hastily fought the door latch on again, then stared at the frightened little newcomer in anger, hating her for simply being there in his wife's place and knowing he could not turn her out.

  35 He sat down heavily, trying desperately to think. The voices outside grew louder. He glanced at his watch, looked at the faces of his own children a long moment, then rose to his feet. There were two minutes left, and he made his decision. He marveled now that he had even considered any other choice.

  36 "Son," he said to the older boy, "you take care of them." It was as simple as that.

  37 Unlatching the door, he thrust it open and stepped out. The crowd surged toward him. Blocking the door with his body, he snatched up the two children nearest him, and shoved them into the shelter. "Bar that door," he shouted to his son, "and don't open it for at least a week!"

  38 Hearing the latch drop into place, he turned and glanced around at the faces in the crowd. Some of them were still babbling incoherently, utterly panic-stricken. Others were quiet now, no longer afraid.

  39 Stepping to his wife's side, he took her hand and spoke in a warm, low tone. "They will be all right, the boy will lead them.” He grinned reassuringly and added, "We should be together, you and Ⅰ."

  40 She smiled wordlessly through her tears and squeezed his hand, exchanging with him in the one brief gesture a lifetime and more of devotion.

41 Then struck the first bomb, blinding them, burning them, blasting them into eternity.

Lesson Fourteen Cipher in the Snow

Jean E. Miser

cipher n. 零(即0);密码;无足轻重的人

biting adj. 刺骨的

snowy adj. 下雪的

short adv. 突然

stumble vi. 跌绊

snow bank n. 雪堆,雪堤

curb n. 马路沿

hollow adj. 凹陷的

scared adj. 惊慌的,恐慌的

quiet vi. 平静下来

half-whisper vi. 低语

principal n. 校长

favorite adj. 最喜爱的

mutter vi. 轻声低语,喃喃而语

blindly adv. 盲目地,无目的地

stepfather n. 继父

untie vt. 解开

apron n. 围裙

dumb adj. 哑的

obituary n. 讣告

bare adj. 光的,空白的

mock vt. 使(努力、力量等)无效,使挫折;嘲笑,愚弄

legally n. 合法地,在法律上

adopt vt. 收养

half-brother n. 同母异父兄弟,或同父异母兄弟

timid adj. 胆小的

attack n. 攻击;抨击

uncooperative adj. 不合作的

learner n. 学习者

slow-witted adj. 笨的,反应慢的

resilience n. 恢复力,回弹

typewriter n. 打字机

slam vt. 使劲关,砰然关闭

skinny adj. 瘦削的,无肉的

faded adj. 褪色的

veil v. 以纱遮掩

exclude vt. 排除,不包括

believing adj. 相信他人的;信以为实的

undoubtedly adv. 无疑

student-body n. 学生机构

committee n. 委员会

lead n. 铅

resolution n. 决心

scrounge vi 四处搜寻

unfamiliar adj. 陌生的,不熟悉的

nobody n. 无足轻重的人

Proper Names

Jean E.Mizer 简•E•迈泽

Milford Corners 密尔福德街区

Cliff Evans 克里夫•埃文斯

I.Q. 智商

Useful Expressions

stop short 中途停下,停止

come to a stop 停下;刹车

in person 亲自

in… mind’s eye 有……印象;想像

say nothing about 一字不提

move in 搬进

spread out 摊开

as far as…know/can tell 就……所知

go about doing sth 处理某事物

point out 指出



   1 It started on a biting cold February morning. I was driving behind the Milford Corners bus as I did most snowy mornings on my way to school. It stopped short at a hotel, and I was annoyed, as I had to come to an unexpected stop. A boy staggered out of the bus, stumbled, and collapsed on the snow bank at the curb. The bus driver and I reached him at the same moment. His thin, hollow face was white even against the snow.

   2 " He's dead, " the driver whispered.

   3 I glanced quickly at the scared young faces staring down at us from the school bus. " A doctor! Quick! "

   4 " No use. I tell you he's dead. " The driver looked down at the boy's still body. " He never even said he felt bad, " he muttered, " just tapped me on the shoulder and said, quietly, I'm sorry. I have to get off at the hotel. ' That's all. Polite and apologizing. "

   5 At school, the giggling morning noise quieted as the news went down the halls. I passed a group of girls. " Who was it? Who dropped dead on the way to school? " I heard one of them half-whisper.

   6 " Don't know his name; some kid from Milford Corners " was the reply.

   7 It was like that in the faculty room and the principal's office. " I'd appreciate your going out to tell the parents, " the principal told me. " They haven't a phone and, anyway, somebody from school should go there in person. I'll cover your classes. "

   8 " Why me? " I asked. " Wouldn't it be better if you did it? "

   9 " I didn't know the boy, " the principal admitted. " And in last year's sophomore personalities column I note that you were listed as his favorite teacher. "

   10 I drove through the snow and cold down the bad road to the Evans place and thought about the boy, Cliff Evans. His favorite teacher ! I could see him in my mind's eye all right, sitting back there in the last seat in my afternoon literature class. He came in the room by himself and left by himself. " Cliff Evans, " I muttered to myself, " a boy who never talked, a boy who never smiled. "

   11 The big ranch kitchen was clean and warm. I blurted out the news somehow. Mrs. Evans reached blindly toward a chair. " He never said anything about being ill. "

   12 His stepfather said impatiently, " He has said nothing about anything since I moved in here. "

   13 Mrs. Evans pushed a pan to the back of the stove and began to untie her apron. " Now hold on, " her husband said angrily. " I've got to have breakfast before I go to town. Nothing we can do now anyway. If Cliff hadn't been so dumb, he'd have told us he didn't feel well. "

   14 After school I sat in the office and stared at the records spread out before me. I was to close the file and write the obituary for the school paper. The almost bare sheets in the file mocked the effort. Cliff Evans, white, never legally adopted by stepfather, five young half brothers and sisters. These bits of information and the list of D grades were all the records had to offer.

   15 Cliff Evans had silently come in the school door in the mornings and gone out the school door in the evenings, and that was all. He had never belonged to a club. He had never played on a team. He had never held an office. As far as I could tell, he had never done one happy, noisy kid thing. He had never been anybody at all.

   16 How do you go about making a boy into a zero? The grade school records showed me. The first and second grade teachers' notes read " sweet, shy child " ; " timid but eager. " Then the third grade note had opened the attack. Some teacher had written in a good, firm hand, " Cliff won't talk. Uncooperative. Slow learner. " The other academic sheep had followed with " dull " ; " slow-witted " ; " low I. Q. " They became correct. The boy's I.Q. score in the ninth grade was listed at 83. But his I.Q. in the third grade had been 106. The score didn't go under 100 until the seventh grade. Even shy, timid, sweet children have resilience. It takes time to break them.

   17 I went angrily to the typewriter and wrote a savage report pointing out what education had done to Cliff Evans. I slapped a copy on the principal's desk and another in the sad file. I banged the typewriter and slammed the file and crashed the door shut, but didn't feel much better. A little boy kept walking after me, a little boy with a thin, pale face; a skinny body in faded jeans; and big eyes that had looked and searched for a long time and then had become veiled.

   18 I could guess how many times he'd been chosen last to play sides in a game, how many whispered child conversations had excluded him, how many times he hadn't been asked. I could see and hear the faces and voices that said over and over, " You're dumb. You're nothing, Cliff Evans. "

   19 A child is a believing creature. Cliff undoubtedly believed them. Suddenly it seemed clear to me: When finally there was nothing left at all for Cliff Evans, he collapsed on a snowbank and went away. The doctor might list " heart failure " as the cause of death, but that wouldn't change my mind.

   20 We couldn't find ten students in the school who had known Cliff well enough to attend the funeral as his friends. So the student-body officers and a committee from the junior class went as a group to the church, being politely sad. I attended the service with them and sat through it with a lump of cold lead in my chest and a big resolution growing through me.

   21 I've never forgotten Cliff Evans nor that resolution.

   22 He has been my challenge year after year, class after class. I look up and down the rows carefully each September at the new faces. I look for veiled eyes or bodies scrounged into a seat in an unfamiliar world. " Look, kids, " I say silently, " I may not do anything else for you this year, but not one of you is going to come out of here a nobody. I'll work or fight to the bitter end doing battle with society and the school board, but I won't have one of you coming out of here thinking himself into a zero. "

   23 Most of the time — not always, but most of the time — I've succeeded.

Lesson Fifteen Bribery — An lnevitable Evil?

David Cotton

bribery n. 贿赂行为

ethics n. 道德规范

syllabus n. 课程;教学大纲

tempt vt. 引诱,吸引

corruption n. 腐败

soft-drink n. 软饮料

overseas adj. 海外的

potential adj. 潜在的

negotiation n. 谈判

substantial adj. 大的,可观的

bribe n. 贿赂

license, license n. (英/美)许可,特许

bureaucratic adj. 官僚的,繁文缛节的

manufacturer n. 制造业者

accuse vt. 控诉,告发

slush fund 用以行贿官员等的钱

questionable adj. 不正当的,可疑的

purchaser n. 买主,购买者

pad vt. 添加;增补;扩充,填塞

commission n. 回扣;拥金;委员会

additional adj. 额外的,另外的

discount n. 折扣,打折

number vt. 编号

allegation n. (有待证实的)指控

withdraw vt. 撤回

wheeling-dealing adj. 激烈甚至不择手段的

grease vt. 使滑润,使顺利;贿赂

palm n. 手掌

commercial adj. 商业的

revelation n. 泄露,显示

securities n. 股票,有价证券

dubious adj. 可疑的

facilitate vt. 使容易;使便利

category n. 类别

secure vt. 获得,得到

contract n. 合同

conglomerate n. 大型联合企业,集团

presidential adj. 总统的

candidate n. 竞选者,候选人

investigation n. 调查

violation n. 违反

anti-trust adj. 反垄断的,反托拉斯的

finance vt. 提供经费

overthrow vt. 推翻;颠覆

Marxist adj. 马克思主义的

adviser n. 顾问,建议者

arms n. 兵器,武器

petrochemical adj. 石油化学制品的

court n. 法庭,法院

witness n. 证人;目击者

claim vt. 声称

go-between n. 中间人;媒人

clinch vt. 确定,使得到最后解决

bureaucracy n. 官僚政治,官僚主义

machinery n. (集)机械;机器

bibliophile n. 藏书家

edition n. 版本

slip vt. 偷偷塞

quick-witted adj. 反应灵敏的

appendix n. (复appendices)附录

deal n. 交易

passage n. 通过

ensure vt. 保证

tender n. 投标

selective adj. 选择的

cargo n. 货物

sterile adj. 消毒的;无效的

penicillin 盘尼西林

shipment n. 装载(或交运)的货物

phial n. 小药瓶

thereby adv. (正式)因此

formulate vt. 规划(制度等)

code n. 法规;准则

outlaw vt. 取缔;宣布……违法

favour vt. 支持,赞成

conduct n. 经营(方式);管理(方式)

ban vt. 禁止,严禁

fee n. 费用

propose vt. 提议,建议

administer vt. 执行,实施

unfortunately adv. 不幸地

enforce vt. 执行

delegate n. 代表,受委托者

impose vt. 实施

community n. 团体

web n. 网络

exaggeration n. 夸张

square vt.&vi. (口语,与with连用)符合,相一致

Proper Names

David Cotton 大卫•科顿

British Leyland 英国莱兰汽车公司

Switzerland 瑞士

Chrysler Corporation 克莱斯勒公司

U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission 美国证券交易署

Chile 智利

Salvadore Allende 萨尔瓦多•阿连德

Iran 伊朗

International Chambers of Commerce 国际商会

Lord Shawcross 肖克罗斯勋爵

Useful Expressions

be tempted to do sth. 受……诱惑

on the increase 增加

break into 闯进

stand by 遵守

speed up 加快

accused of 被指控犯有……罪

hit upon (偶然)发现,想到

consist of 由……组成

in private 私下,秘密

  1 Students taking business courses are sometimes a little surprised to find that lectures on business ethics have been included in their syllabuses of study. They often do not realize that, later in their careers, they may be tempted to bend their principles to get what they want; perhaps also they are not fully aware that bribery in various forms is on the increase in many countries and, in some, this type of corruption has been a way of life for centuries.

  2 In dealing with the topic of business ethics, some lecturers ask students how they would act in the following situation: Suppose you were head of a major soft-drinks company and you want to break into a certain overseas market where the growth potential for your company is likely to be very great indeed. During negotiations with government officials of this country, the Minister of Trade makes it clear to you that if you offer him a substantial bribe, you will find it much easier to get an import licence for your goods, and you are also likely to avoid " bureaucratic delays " , as he puts it. Now, the question is: do you pay up or stand by your principles?

  3 It is easy to talk about having high moral standards but, in practice, what would one really do in such a situation? Some time ago the British car manufacturer, British Leyland, was accused of operating a " slush fund " , and of other questionable practices such as paying agents and purchasers with padded commission, offering additional discounts and making payments to numbered bank accounts in Switzerland. The company rejected these allegations and they were later withdrawn. Nevertheless, at this time, there were people in the motor industry in Britain who were prepared to say in private: " Look, we're in a wheeling-dealing business. Every year we're selling more than a £ 1,000 million worth of cars abroad. If we spend a few million greasing the palms of some of the buyers, who's hurt? If we didn't do it, someone else would. "

  4 It is difficult to resist the impression that bribery and other questionable payments are on the increase. Indeed, they seem to have become a fact of commercial life. To take just one example, the Chrysler Corporation, third largest of the U. S. motor manufacturers, disclosed that it made questionable payments of more than $ 2.5 million between 1971 and 1976. By making this revelation, it joined more than 300 U.S. companies that had admitted to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that they had made dubious payments of one kind or another — bribes, facilitating payments, extra discounts, etc. — in recent years. For discussion purposes, we can divide these payments into three broad categories.

  5 The first category consists of substantial payments made for political purposes or to secure major contracts. For example, the U. S. conglomerate ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation) offered a large sum of money in support of a U.S. presidential candidate at a time when it was under investigation for possible violations of the U.S. anti-trust law. This same company, it was revealed, was ready to finance efforts to overthrow the Marxist government of Chile whose President was Salvadore Allende.

  6 In this category, we may also include large payments made to ruling families or their close advisers in order to secure arms sales or major petrochemical and construction contracts. In a court case involving an arms deal with Iran, a witness claimed that £ 1 million had been paid by a British company to a " go-between " who helped clinch a deal for supply of tanks to that country. Other countries have also been known to put pressure on foreign companies to make donations to party funds.

  7 The second category covers payments made to obtain quicker official approval of some project, to speed up the wheels of bureaucracy. An interesting example of this kind of payment is provided by the story of a sales manager who had been trying for some months to sell road machinery to the Minister of Works of a Caribbean country. Finally, he hit upon the answer. Discovering that the minister was a bibliophile, he bought a rare edition of a book, slipped $ 20,000 within its pages, then presented it to the minister. This man examined its contents, then said: " I understand there is a two-volume edition of this work. " The sales manager, who was quick-witted, replied: " My company cannot afford a two-volume edition, sir, but we could offer you a copy with an appendix! " A short time later, the deal was approved.

  8 The third category involves payments made in countries where it is traditional to pay people to facilitate the passage of a business deal. Some Middle East countries would be included on this list, as well as certain Far Eastern countries.

  9 The payment may be made by a foreign company to ensure that a tender is put on a selective contract list or the company may pay so that an import licence for essential equipment is approved. Sometimes an expensive gift may be necessary to soften up a government official.

  10 A common type in this category is the " facilitating payment " — usually a smaller sum of money — made to certain customs officials to clear cargoes. One businessman has told the story of a delivery of 10,000 bottles of sterile penicillin at the airport of a Far Eastern country. It was apparently customary to pay customs officials about $ 250 upon arrival of each shipment to " get them out of the sun " .In this case, the company was not prepared to make such a payment, so no money changed hands. The Minister of Health of that nation then ordered that each phial be opened for inspection, thereby destroying the whole shipment.

  11 Is it possible to formulate a code of rules for companies which would outlaw bribery in all its forms? The International Chambers of Commerce (ICC) favours a code of conduct which would ban the giving and seeking of bribes. This code would try to distinguish between commissions paid for real services and padded fees. A council has been proposed to administer the code.

  12 Unfortunately, opinions differ among members of the ICC concerning how to enforce the code. The British members, led by Lord Shawcross, would like the system to have enough legal teeth to make companies behave themselves. " It's no use having a dog without teeth, " they argue. However, the French delegates think it is the business of governments to make and impose law; the job of a business community like the ICC is to say what is right and wrong, but not to impose anything.

13 In a well-known British newspaper, a writer argued recently that " industry is caught in a web of bribery " and that everyone is " on the take " . This is probably an exaggeration. However, today's businessman, selling in overseas markets, will frequently meet situations where it is difficult to square his business interests with his moral conscience.
Lesson Thirteen Who Shall Dwell? H. C. Neal dwell vi. 居住;生存 half-listen vi. 似听非听 shed n. 棚,小屋 abruptly adv. 突然地 bomb n. 炸弹 alert n. 警报 missile n. 导弹 launch v. 发射 head vt. 朝特定方向行进 verified adj. 经证实的 tune vt. 调整收音机至某一频率 ashen adj. 灰色的,灰白色的 blurt vi. 脱口而出 loathing n. 厌恶,憎恶 dispatch vt. 派遣,发送 nuclear adj. 原子核的,核的 weapon n. 武器 shelter n. 避难所 drill n. 军事训练;操练 rehearsal n. 演习,排练 bearing n. 举止,态度 youngster n. 儿童,少年 hustle vt. 催促,猛推 tersely adv. 简捷地;简要地 slide vt. 使滑动 headboard n. 床头板 crisp adj. 凉爽的 fall n. (美)秋天 latch vt. 用门闫关上 refuge n. 避难所 Christian n. 基督徒 showdown n. 摊牌 contend vt. 坚决主张;断言 religious adj. 宗教的 pap n. 无实质内容的东西 retort vi. 反驳,驳斥 primary adj. 主要的,首要的 protest vt. 反驳;申明;抗议 purify vt. 净化,使纯净 thy adj. (古)你的 ark n. 方舟 scoff vi. 嘲弄,嘲笑 sureness n. 千真万确,确实 pounding n. 重击声 urgent adj. 紧急的 ram n. 撞击工具,撞夯 batter vt. 捶打,击 reasonably adv. 合理地 relentlessly adv. 持续地 evenly adv. 平静地,冷静地 stun vt. 使震惊 plea n. 恳求,请求 thrust vt. 猛推,挤 hastily adv. 匆忙地,急切地 newcomer n. 新来者 marvel vi. 惊讶,惊异 unlatch vt. 打开(门闩) surge vi. 涌来 block n. 阻塞,阻碍 shove vt. 推挤 bar vt. 闩(门窗等) babble vi. 唠叨 incoherently adv. 语无伦次地;不连贯地 utterly adv. 完全地,彻底地 panic-stricken adj. 极度受惊的 grin vi. 露齿而笑 reassuringly adv. 安慰地 devotion n. 热爱,挚爱 blast v. 炸 eternity n. 永恒;不朽 Proper Names H.C.Neal H•C•尼尔 Bible 《圣经》 Noah 诺亚 Useful Expressions keep (radio) tuned for 收听(广播) look … in the eye 直视,正视 be squared away 使……就绪 typical of ……是……的特征 make it plain 明确说明 warn sb. of 警告(某人) see no need for 认为没有必要 can’t call oneself... 不称职 turn …out 轰出;开除 break down 推倒;克服(障碍)   1 It came on a Sunday afternoon. They had prayed that it would never come, ever, but suddenly here it was.   2 The father was resting on a couch and half-listening to some music on the radio. Mother was in the kitchen preparing dinner and the younger boy and girl were in the bedroom drawing pictures. The older boy was working in the shed out back.   3 Suddenly the music was cut off. Then, the announcer almost shouted:   4 "Bomb alert! Attention! A number of missiles have just been launched across the sea, heading this way. They are expected to strike within the next sixteen minutes. This is a verified alert! Take cover! Keep your radios tuned for further instructions."   5 "My God!" the father gasped. His face was ashen, puzzled, as though he knew that this was real — but still could not quite believe it.   6 "Get the children," his wife blurted, then dashed to the door to call the older boy. He stared at her a brief moment, seeing the fear in her face, but also a loathing for all men involved in the making and dispatch of nuclear weapons.   7 The father jumped to his feet, and ran to the bedroom. "Let's go," he snapped, "shelter drill!" Although they had had many rehearsals, his voice and bearing sent the youngsters dashing for the door without a word.   8 He hustled them through the kitchen to the rear door and sent them to the shelter. As he returned to the bedroom, the older boy came running in.   9 "This is the hot one, son," said his father tersely, "the real one." He and the boy stared at each other a long moment, both knowing what must be done and each knowing the other would more than do his share, yet wondering still at the frightening fact that it must be done at all.   10 "How much time have we got, dad?"   11 "Not long," the father replied, glancing at his watch, "twelve, maybe fourteen minutes."   12 The boy left. The father stepped to the closet, slid the door open and picked up the metal box containing their important papers. He then picked up the big family Bible from the headboard on the bed. Everything else they would need had been stored in the shelter the past several months. He heard his wife approaching and turned as she entered the room.   13 "Ready, dear?" she asked.   14 "Yes," he replied, "are the kids gone in?"   15 "They're all down," she answered, "I still can't believe it's real."   16 "We've got to believe it," he said, looking at her steadily in the eye, " we can't afford not to."   17 Outside, the day was crisp and clear, typical of early fall. He looked at his watch again. Four minutes had elapsed since the first alarm. Twelve minutes, more or less, remained.   18 Inside the shelter, he latched the door, and looked around to see that his family was squared away. Now it began. The waiting.   19 The man and his wife knew that others would come soon, begging and crying to be taken in now that the time was here.   20 They had argued about this when the shelter was being built. It was in her mind to share their refuge. "We can't call ourselves Christians and then deny safety to our friends when the showdown comes," she contended, "that isn't what God teaches."   21 "That's nothing but religious pap," he retorted with a degree of anger. "God created the family as the basic unit of society," he reasoned. "That should make it plain that a man's primary Christian duty is to protect his family."   22 "But don't you see?" she protested, "We must prepare to purify ourselves... to rise above this ‘ mine' thinking and be as God's own son, who said, ‘love thy neighbor.'"   23 "No," he replied, "I can't buy that." Then, after a moment's thought, "It is my family I must save, no one more. You. These kids. Our friends are like the people of Noah's time: he warned them of the coming flood when he built the ark on God's command. He was ridiculed and scoffed at, just as we have been ridiculed. No,” and here his voice took on a new sad sureness, "it is meant that if they don't prepare, they die. I see no need for further argument."   24 With seven minutes left, the first knock rang the shelter door.” Let us in! For God's sake."   25 He recognized the voice. It was his first neighbor toward town.   26 "No!" shouted the father, "There is only room for us. Go!"   27 Again came the pounding. Louder. More urgent.   28 "You let us in or we'll break down this door!" He wondered if they were actually getting a ram of some sort to batter at the door. He was reasonably certain it would hold.   29 The seconds ticked relentlessly away. Four minutes left.   30 His wife stared at the door and moaned slightly. "Steady, girl,” he said, evenly. The children looked at him, frightened, puzzled. He glared at his watch, ran his hands through his hair, and said nothing.   31 Three minutes left.   32 At that moment, a woman cried from the outside, "If you won't let me in, please take my baby, my little girl."   33 He was stunned by her plea. What must I do? He asked himself in sheer agony. What man on earth could deny a child the chance to live?   34 At that point, his wife rose, and stepped to the door. Before he could move to stop her, she let down the latch and dashed outside. Instantly a three-year-old girl was thrust into the shelter. He hastily fought the door latch on again, then stared at the frightened little newcomer in anger, hating her for simply being there in his wife's place and knowing he could not turn her out.   35 He sat down heavily, trying desperately to think. The voices outside grew louder. He glanced at his watch, looked at the faces of his own children a long moment, then rose to his feet. There were two minutes left, and he made his decision. He marveled now that he had even considered any other choice.   36 "Son," he said to the older boy, "you take care of them." It was as simple as that.   37 Unlatching the door, he thrust it open and stepped out. The crowd surged toward him. Blocking the door with his body, he snatched up the two children nearest him, and shoved them into the shelter. "Bar that door," he shouted to his son, "and don't open it for at least a week!"   38 Hearing the latch drop into place, he turned and glanced around at the faces in the crowd. Some of them were still babbling incoherently, utterly panic-stricken. Others were quiet now, no longer afraid.   39 Stepping to his wife's side, he took her hand and spoke in a warm, low tone. "They will be all right, the boy will lead them.” He grinned reassuringly and added, "We should be together, you and Ⅰ."   40 She smiled wordlessly through her tears and squeezed his hand, exchanging with him in the one brief gesture a lifetime and more of devotion. 41 Then struck the first bomb, blinding them, burning them, blasting them into eternity. Lesson Fourteen Cipher in the Snow Jean E. Miser cipher n. 零(即0);密码;无足轻重的人 biting adj. 刺骨的 snowy adj. 下雪的 short adv. 突然 stumble vi. 跌绊 snow bank n. 雪堆,雪堤 curb n. 马路沿 hollow adj. 凹陷的 scared adj. 惊慌的,恐慌的 quiet vi. 平静下来 half-whisper vi. 低语 principal n. 校长 favorite adj. 最喜爱的 mutter vi. 轻声低语,喃喃而语 blindly adv. 盲目地,无目的地 stepfather n. 继父 untie vt. 解开 apron n. 围裙 dumb adj. 哑的 obituary n. 讣告 bare adj. 光的,空白的 mock vt. 使(努力、力量等)无效,使挫折;嘲笑,愚弄 legally n. 合法地,在法律上 adopt vt. 收养 half-brother n. 同母异父兄弟,或同父异母兄弟 timid adj. 胆小的 attack n. 攻击;抨击 uncooperative adj. 不合作的 learner n. 学习者 slow-witted adj. 笨的,反应慢的 resilience n. 恢复力,回弹 typewriter n. 打字机 slam vt. 使劲关,砰然关闭 skinny adj. 瘦削的,无肉的 faded adj. 褪色的 veil v. 以纱遮掩 exclude vt. 排除,不包括 believing adj. 相信他人的;信以为实的 undoubtedly adv. 无疑 student-body n. 学生机构 committee n. 委员会 lead n. 铅 resolution n. 决心 scrounge vi 四处搜寻 unfamiliar adj. 陌生的,不熟悉的 nobody n. 无足轻重的人 Proper Names Jean E.Mizer 简•E•迈泽 Milford Corners 密尔福德街区 Cliff Evans 克里夫•埃文斯 I.Q. 智商 Useful Expressions stop short 中途停下,停止 come to a stop 停下;刹车 in person 亲自 in… mind’s eye 有……印象;想像 say nothing about 一字不提 move in 搬进 spread out 摊开 as far as…know/can tell 就……所知 go about doing sth 处理某事物 point out 指出    1 It started on a biting cold February morning. I was driving behind the Milford Corners bus as I did most snowy mornings on my way to school. It stopped short at a hotel, and I was annoyed, as I had to come to an unexpected stop. A boy staggered out of the bus, stumbled, and collapsed on the snow bank at the curb. The bus driver and I reached him at the same moment. His thin, hollow face was white even against the snow.    2 " He's dead, " the driver whispered.    3 I glanced quickly at the scared young faces staring down at us from the school bus. " A doctor! Quick! "    4 " No use. I tell you he's dead. " The driver looked down at the boy's still body. " He never even said he felt bad, " he muttered, " just tapped me on the shoulder and said, quietly, I'm sorry. I have to get off at the hotel. ' That's all. Polite and apologizing. "    5 At school, the giggling morning noise quieted as the news went down the halls. I passed a group of girls. " Who was it? Who dropped dead on the way to school? " I heard one of them half-whisper.    6 " Don't know his name; some kid from Milford Corners " was the reply.    7 It was like that in the faculty room and the principal's office. " I'd appreciate your going out to tell the parents, " the principal told me. " They haven't a phone and, anyway, somebody from school should go there in person. I'll cover your classes. "    8 " Why me? " I asked. " Wouldn't it be better if you did it? "    9 " I didn't know the boy, " the principal admitted. " And in last year's sophomore personalities column I note that you were listed as his favorite teacher. "    10 I drove through the snow and cold down the bad road to the Evans place and thought about the boy, Cliff Evans. His favorite teacher ! I could see him in my mind's eye all right, sitting back there in the last seat in my afternoon literature class. He came in the room by himself and left by himself. " Cliff Evans, " I muttered to myself, " a boy who never talked, a boy who never smiled. "    11 The big ranch kitchen was clean and warm. I blurted out the news somehow. Mrs. Evans reached blindly toward a chair. " He never said anything about being ill. "    12 His stepfather said impatiently, " He has said nothing about anything since I moved in here. "    13 Mrs. Evans pushed a pan to the back of the stove and began to untie her apron. " Now hold on, " her husband said angrily. " I've got to have breakfast before I go to town. Nothing we can do now anyway. If Cliff hadn't been so dumb, he'd have told us he didn't feel well. "    14 After school I sat in the office and stared at the records spread out before me. I was to close the file and write the obituary for the school paper. The almost bare sheets in the file mocked the effort. Cliff Evans, white, never legally adopted by stepfather, five young half brothers and sisters. These bits of information and the list of D grades were all the records had to offer.    15 Cliff Evans had silently come in the school door in the mornings and gone out the school door in the evenings, and that was all. He had never belonged to a club. He had never played on a team. He had never held an office. As far as I could tell, he had never done one happy, noisy kid thing. He had never been anybody at all.    16 How do you go about making a boy into a zero? The grade school records showed me. The first and second grade teachers' notes read " sweet, shy child " ; " timid but eager. " Then the third grade note had opened the attack. Some teacher had written in a good, firm hand, " Cliff won't talk. Uncooperative. Slow learner. " The other academic sheep had followed with " dull " ; " slow-witted " ; " low I. Q. " They became correct. The boy's I.Q. score in the ninth grade was listed at 83. But his I.Q. in the third grade had been 106. The score didn't go under 100 until the seventh grade. Even shy, timid, sweet children have resilience. It takes time to break them.    17 I went angrily to the typewriter and wrote a savage report pointing out what education had done to Cliff Evans. I slapped a copy on the principal's desk and another in the sad file. I banged the typewriter and slammed the file and crashed the door shut, but didn't feel much better. A little boy kept walking after me, a little boy with a thin, pale face; a skinny body in faded jeans; and big eyes that had looked and searched for a long time and then had become veiled.    18 I could guess how many times he'd been chosen last to play sides in a game, how many whispered child conversations had excluded him, how many times he hadn't been asked. I could see and hear the faces and voices that said over and over, " You're dumb. You're nothing, Cliff Evans. "    19 A child is a believing creature. Cliff undoubtedly believed them. Suddenly it seemed clear to me: When finally there was nothing left at all for Cliff Evans, he collapsed on a snowbank and went away. The doctor might list " heart failure " as the cause of death, but that wouldn't change my mind.    20 We couldn't find ten students in the school who had known Cliff well enough to attend the funeral as his friends. So the student-body officers and a committee from the junior class went as a group to the church, being politely sad. I attended the service with them and sat through it with a lump of cold lead in my chest and a big resolution growing through me.    21 I've never forgotten Cliff Evans nor that resolution.    22 He has been my challenge year after year, class after class. I look up and down the rows carefully each September at the new faces. I look for veiled eyes or bodies scrounged into a seat in an unfamiliar world. " Look, kids, " I say silently, " I may not do anything else for you this year, but not one of you is going to come out of here a nobody. I'll work or fight to the bitter end doing battle with society and the school board, but I won't have one of you coming out of here thinking himself into a zero. "    23 Most of the time — not always, but most of the time — I've succeeded. Lesson Fifteen Bribery — An lnevitable Evil? David Cotton bribery n. 贿赂行为 ethics n. 道德规范 syllabus n. 课程;教学大纲 tempt vt. 引诱,吸引 corruption n. 腐败 soft-drink n. 软饮料 overseas adj. 海外的 potential adj. 潜在的 negotiation n. 谈判 substantial adj. 大的,可观的 bribe n. 贿赂 license, license n. (英/美)许可,特许 bureaucratic adj. 官僚的,繁文缛节的 manufacturer n. 制造业者 accuse vt. 控诉,告发 slush fund 用以行贿官员等的钱 questionable adj. 不正当的,可疑的 purchaser n. 买主,购买者 pad vt. 添加;增补;扩充,填塞 commission n. 回扣;拥金;委员会 additional adj. 额外的,另外的 discount n. 折扣,打折 number vt. 编号 allegation n. (有待证实的)指控 withdraw vt. 撤回 wheeling-dealing adj. 激烈甚至不择手段的 grease vt. 使滑润,使顺利;贿赂 palm n. 手掌 commercial adj. 商业的 revelation n. 泄露,显示 securities n. 股票,有价证券 dubious adj. 可疑的 facilitate vt. 使容易;使便利 category n. 类别 secure vt. 获得,得到 contract n. 合同 conglomerate n. 大型联合企业,集团 presidential adj. 总统的 candidate n. 竞选者,候选人 investigation n. 调查 violation n. 违反 anti-trust adj. 反垄断的,反托拉斯的 finance vt. 提供经费 overthrow vt. 推翻;颠覆 Marxist adj. 马克思主义的 adviser n. 顾问,建议者 arms n. 兵器,武器 petrochemical adj. 石油化学制品的 court n. 法庭,法院 witness n. 证人;目击者 claim vt. 声称 go-between n. 中间人;媒人 clinch vt. 确定,使得到最后解决 bureaucracy n. 官僚政治,官僚主义 machinery n. (集)机械;机器 bibliophile n. 藏书家 edition n. 版本 slip vt. 偷偷塞 quick-witted adj. 反应灵敏的 appendix n. (复appendices)附录 deal n. 交易 passage n. 通过 ensure vt. 保证 tender n. 投标 selective adj. 选择的 cargo n. 货物 sterile adj. 消毒的;无效的 penicillin 盘尼西林 shipment n. 装载(或交运)的货物 phial n. 小药瓶 thereby adv. (正式)因此 formulate vt. 规划(制度等) code n. 法规;准则 outlaw vt. 取缔;宣布……违法 favour vt. 支持,赞成 conduct n. 经营(方式);管理(方式) ban vt. 禁止,严禁 fee n. 费用 propose vt. 提议,建议 administer vt. 执行,实施 unfortunately adv. 不幸地 enforce vt. 执行 delegate n. 代表,受委托者 impose vt. 实施 community n. 团体 web n. 网络 exaggeration n. 夸张 square vt.&vi. (口语,与with连用)符合,相一致 Proper Names David Cotton 大卫•科顿 British Leyland 英国莱兰汽车公司 Switzerland 瑞士 Chrysler Corporation 克莱斯勒公司 U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission 美国证券交易署 Chile 智利 Salvadore Allende 萨尔瓦多•阿连德 Iran 伊朗 International Chambers of Commerce 国际商会 Lord Shawcross 肖克罗斯勋爵 Useful Expressions be tempted to do sth. 受……诱惑 on the increase 增加 break into 闯进 stand by 遵守 speed up 加快 accused of 被指控犯有……罪 hit upon (偶然)发现,想到 consist of 由……组成 in private 私下,秘密   1 Students taking business courses are sometimes a little surprised to find that lectures on business ethics have been included in their syllabuses of study. They often do not realize that, later in their careers, they may be tempted to bend their principles to get what they want; perhaps also they are not fully aware that bribery in various forms is on the increase in many countries and, in some, this type of corruption has been a way of life for centuries.   2 In dealing with the topic of business ethics, some lecturers ask students how they would act in the following situation: Suppose you were head of a major soft-drinks company and you want to break into a certain overseas market where the growth potential for your company is likely to be very great indeed. During negotiations with government officials of this country, the Minister of Trade makes it clear to you that if you offer him a substantial bribe, you will find it much easier to get an import licence for your goods, and you are also likely to avoid " bureaucratic delays " , as he puts it. Now, the question is: do you pay up or stand by your principles?   3 It is easy to talk about having high moral standards but, in practice, what would one really do in such a situation? Some time ago the British car manufacturer, British Leyland, was accused of operating a " slush fund " , and of other questionable practices such as paying agents and purchasers with padded commission, offering additional discounts and making payments to numbered bank accounts in Switzerland. The company rejected these allegations and they were later withdrawn. Nevertheless, at this time, there were people in the motor industry in Britain who were prepared to say in private: " Look, we're in a wheeling-dealing business. Every year we're selling more than a £ 1,000 million worth of cars abroad. If we spend a few million greasing the palms of some of the buyers, who's hurt? If we didn't do it, someone else would. "   4 It is difficult to resist the impression that bribery and other questionable payments are on the increase. Indeed, they seem to have become a fact of commercial life. To take just one example, the Chrysler Corporation, third largest of the U. S. motor manufacturers, disclosed that it made questionable payments of more than $ 2.5 million between 1971 and 1976. By making this revelation, it joined more than 300 U.S. companies that had admitted to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission that they had made dubious payments of one kind or another — bribes, facilitating payments, extra discounts, etc. — in recent years. For discussion purposes, we can divide these payments into three broad categories.   5 The first category consists of substantial payments made for political purposes or to secure major contracts. For example, the U. S. conglomerate ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation) offered a large sum of money in support of a U.S. presidential candidate at a time when it was under investigation for possible violations of the U.S. anti-trust law. This same company, it was revealed, was ready to finance efforts to overthrow the Marxist government of Chile whose President was Salvadore Allende.   6 In this category, we may also include large payments made to ruling families or their close advisers in order to secure arms sales or major petrochemical and construction contracts. In a court case involving an arms deal with Iran, a witness claimed that £ 1 million had been paid by a British company to a " go-between " who helped clinch a deal for supply of tanks to that country. Other countries have also been known to put pressure on foreign companies to make donations to party funds.   7 The second category covers payments made to obtain quicker official approval of some project, to speed up the wheels of bureaucracy. An interesting example of this kind of payment is provided by the story of a sales manager who had been trying for some months to sell road machinery to the Minister of Works of a Caribbean country. Finally, he hit upon the answer. Discovering that the minister was a bibliophile, he bought a rare edition of a book, slipped $ 20,000 within its pages, then presented it to the minister. This man examined its contents, then said: " I understand there is a two-volume edition of this work. " The sales manager, who was quick-witted, replied: " My company cannot afford a two-volume edition, sir, but we could offer you a copy with an appendix! " A short time later, the deal was approved.   8 The third category involves payments made in countries where it is traditional to pay people to facilitate the passage of a business deal. Some Middle East countries would be included on this list, as well as certain Far Eastern countries.   9 The payment may be made by a foreign company to ensure that a tender is put on a selective contract list or the company may pay so that an import licence for essential equipment is approved. Sometimes an expensive gift may be necessary to soften up a government official.   10 A common type in this category is the " facilitating payment " — usually a smaller sum of money — made to certain customs officials to clear cargoes. One businessman has told the story of a delivery of 10,000 bottles of sterile penicillin at the airport of a Far Eastern country. It was apparently customary to pay customs officials about $ 250 upon arrival of each shipment to " get them out of the sun " .In this case, the company was not prepared to make such a payment, so no money changed hands. The Minister of Health of that nation then ordered that each phial be opened for inspection, thereby destroying the whole shipment.   11 Is it possible to formulate a code of rules for companies which would outlaw bribery in all its forms? The International Chambers of Commerce (ICC) favours a code of conduct which would ban the giving and seeking of bribes. This code would try to distinguish between commissions paid for real services and padded fees. A council has been proposed to administer the code.   12 Unfortunately, opinions differ among members of the ICC concerning how to enforce the code. The British members, led by Lord Shawcross, would like the system to have enough legal teeth to make companies behave themselves. " It's no use having a dog without teeth, " they argue. However, the French delegates think it is the business of governments to make and impose law; the job of a business community like the ICC is to say what is right and wrong, but not to impose anything. 13 In a well-known British newspaper, a writer argued recently that " industry is caught in a web of bribery " and that everyone is " on the take " . This is probably an exaggeration. However, today's businessman, selling in overseas markets, will frequently meet situations where it is difficult to square his business interests with his moral conscience.
3g.bigear.cn 用手机随时随地学英语
分享