新编英语教程第一册Unit16

ffhappy 2006-03-15 1283 阅读
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Unit 16

DIALOGUE I

Word Study

A: You're reading a dictionary, aren't you?
B: Yes, I read three pages of this dictionary every day, and I try to memorize as many words as I can.
A: What do you do that for?
B: To increase my vocabulary so that I can read better. I'm very fond of English literature, but my limited vocabulary keeps me from reading English short stories easily.
A: May I give you some suggestions?
B: Please do. I know you're an efficient reader.
A: Efficient reading requires the use of various problem-solving skills. For example, it's impossible for you to know the exact meaning of every word you read, but by developing your guessing ability, you'll be able to understand enough to arrive at the complete meaning of a sentence, a paragraph, or a passage. I don't think dictionary reading can help you do that.
B: Guessing ability? What does that mean? And how do I develop my guessing ability?
A: You just guess the meaning of a word intelligently. I have a book with exercises designed to help English learners improve their reading proficiency. I'd suggest you should read it. Do you want to take a look at it?
B: Sure. I'd like to own one if it will work wonders.
A: Don't expect it to be a magic book, You'll have to exercise your mind.
B: I see. Does it mean that there are formulas which I can memorize to improve my ability to guess the meanings of unfamiliar words?
A: No, there aren't such formulas. One of the things you can do is use the meanings of the other words in the sentence or paragraph to get the meaning of the word that you don't know.
B: Do you mean using context clues to discover the meaning of an unfamiliar word?
A: Yes. Using context clues is one way. Another way is word analysis, that is, looking at the meanings of parts of a word.
B: I don't get it.
A: Many English words have been formed by combining parts of older English, Greek, and Latin words. If you know the meanings of some of these word parts, you can often guess the meaning of an unfamiliar English word easily.
B: Can you give me an example?
A: Yes, for example, the word inspector, meaning "one who examines closely", is formed from in, which means "into", spect which means "look at", and or, which means "one who". Let me give you another example. The word predict, meaning "tell beforehand", is derived from pre, which means "before", and dict, which means "say" or "tell".
B: Word analysis really helps.
A: Yes, though it is not always enough to give you the precise definition of a word you come across in a reading passage. But it often helps you understand the general meaning of the word so that you can continue reading without stopping to use a dictionary.
B: You're indeed a reading specialist.
A: I learned all this from that book.

DIALOGUE II

Dialogue:
Xiao Lu, a Chinese student, had arranged to have an English lesson with her English teacher, Frank, at 6 p.m., but Xiao Lu did not show up. Next day, they meet at the university.
F: Have you got a minute, Xiao Lu? I'd like to have a word with you, please.
X: Yes, of course.
F: ... I thought we arranged to have an English lesson last night at 6. It was last night, wasn't it?
X: Er... well, yes, it was. I'm really sorry about it. I was just coming to see you to explain.
F: Well, I hope you've got a good explanation, Xiao Lu, because I had another important appointment last night and if I'd known you weren't coming, I'd have gone out!
X: I'm ever so sorry, but it wasn't really my fault!
F: Not your fault! What about the other times? This isn't the first time it's happened, is it?
X: No, but I couldn't help it, there was very little I could do about it...
F: You could have telephoned me and cancelled the lesson. You know my number, don't you? I remember giving it to you last week — last time when you didn't turn up for your lesson.
X: I'm awfully sorry, but just before I left the house, a neighbour came to our house to tell us that my brother had been involved in an accident.
F: Oh, I see.
X: My mother was terribly upset and didn't want me to leave her. So I had to stay with her until my elder brother got home. I was so worried that I completely forgot about our lesson.
F: Oh, well, don't worry about it. I didn't realize it was so serious. Is your brother all right?
X: Yes, he's still in hospital, but they are sending him home tomorrow; just a few cuts and bruises.
F: I'm sorry for the way I snapped at you, Xiao Lu.
X: Oh, that's all right. I understand. I'd have been just as angry in your place.
F: But, please, try and telephone me next time, all right?


READING I

Procrastination

The verb "procrastinate" comes from the Latin procrastinate, which means "to postpone until tomorrow". To procrastinate, then, is to delay doing something until some future time, and a procrastinator is someone who is always putting off what he or she should be doing right now.
Those of us who have a tendency toward procrastination know that it is a terrible habit. Every day we tell ourselves that we must start doing things immediately, and each day we postpone our work, are late for deadlines, and put off keeping our promises to other people. Because we are always in the process of procrastinating, we are also always trying to catch up. We are always doing yesterday's jobs today, and tomorrow we will be doing today's unfinished work.
There are people who rarely procrastinate. They are highly efficient and well organized, and they seem to get everything done on time. I suspect that they never leave home in the morning before they make the bad, never go to sleep at night before they finish their work, always answer their mail promptly, and are never late for appointments. As a result, they are probably always one step ahead of you and me!
Maybe the way to overcome procrastination is to change our habits gradually. We can start with a daily schedule of the things we want or need to accomplish. But let's be reasonable. We shouldn't crowd the list with too many tasks, and we should be realistic about what we can do. Especially in the beginning we should be lenient with ourselves. After all, if we get discouraged at the start, we will go right back to our old habits.
Finally, if we begin to follow our own schedule for each day, we will stop postponing the chores that face us. Life will become far less complicated and each day will be easier to face. We will undoubtedly feel better about ourselves, too, because we will know that we can overcome our weakness and improve ourselves.
Unit 16 DIALOGUE I Word Study A: You're reading a dictionary, aren't you? B: Yes, I read three pages of this dictionary every day, and I try to memorize as many words as I can. A: What do you do that for? B: To increase my vocabulary so that I can read better. I'm very fond of English literature, but my limited vocabulary keeps me from reading English short stories easily. A: May I give you some suggestions? B: Please do. I know you're an efficient reader. A: Efficient reading requires the use of various problem-solving skills. For example, it's impossible for you to know the exact meaning of every word you read, but by developing your guessing ability, you'll be able to understand enough to arrive at the complete meaning of a sentence, a paragraph, or a passage. I don't think dictionary reading can help you do that. B: Guessing ability? What does that mean? And how do I develop my guessing ability? A: You just guess the meaning of a word intelligently. I have a book with exercises designed to help English learners improve their reading proficiency. I'd suggest you should read it. Do you want to take a look at it? B: Sure. I'd like to own one if it will work wonders. A: Don't expect it to be a magic book, You'll have to exercise your mind. B: I see. Does it mean that there are formulas which I can memorize to improve my ability to guess the meanings of unfamiliar words? A: No, there aren't such formulas. One of the things you can do is use the meanings of the other words in the sentence or paragraph to get the meaning of the word that you don't know. B: Do you mean using context clues to discover the meaning of an unfamiliar word? A: Yes. Using context clues is one way. Another way is word analysis, that is, looking at the meanings of parts of a word. B: I don't get it. A: Many English words have been formed by combining parts of older English, Greek, and Latin words. If you know the meanings of some of these word parts, you can often guess the meaning of an unfamiliar English word easily. B: Can you give me an example? A: Yes, for example, the word inspector, meaning "one who examines closely", is formed from in, which means "into", spect which means "look at", and or, which means "one who". Let me give you another example. The word predict, meaning "tell beforehand", is derived from pre, which means "before", and dict, which means "say" or "tell". B: Word analysis really helps. A: Yes, though it is not always enough to give you the precise definition of a word you come across in a reading passage. But it often helps you understand the general meaning of the word so that you can continue reading without stopping to use a dictionary. B: You're indeed a reading specialist. A: I learned all this from that book. DIALOGUE II Dialogue: Xiao Lu, a Chinese student, had arranged to have an English lesson with her English teacher, Frank, at 6 p.m., but Xiao Lu did not show up. Next day, they meet at the university. F: Have you got a minute, Xiao Lu? I'd like to have a word with you, please. X: Yes, of course. F: ... I thought we arranged to have an English lesson last night at 6. It was last night, wasn't it? X: Er... well, yes, it was. I'm really sorry about it. I was just coming to see you to explain. F: Well, I hope you've got a good explanation, Xiao Lu, because I had another important appointment last night and if I'd known you weren't coming, I'd have gone out! X: I'm ever so sorry, but it wasn't really my fault! F: Not your fault! What about the other times? This isn't the first time it's happened, is it? X: No, but I couldn't help it, there was very little I could do about it... F: You could have telephoned me and cancelled the lesson. You know my number, don't you? I remember giving it to you last week — last time when you didn't turn up for your lesson. X: I'm awfully sorry, but just before I left the house, a neighbour came to our house to tell us that my brother had been involved in an accident. F: Oh, I see. X: My mother was terribly upset and didn't want me to leave her. So I had to stay with her until my elder brother got home. I was so worried that I completely forgot about our lesson. F: Oh, well, don't worry about it. I didn't realize it was so serious. Is your brother all right? X: Yes, he's still in hospital, but they are sending him home tomorrow; just a few cuts and bruises. F: I'm sorry for the way I snapped at you, Xiao Lu. X: Oh, that's all right. I understand. I'd have been just as angry in your place. F: But, please, try and telephone me next time, all right? READING I Procrastination The verb "procrastinate" comes from the Latin procrastinate, which means "to postpone until tomorrow". To procrastinate, then, is to delay doing something until some future time, and a procrastinator is someone who is always putting off what he or she should be doing right now. Those of us who have a tendency toward procrastination know that it is a terrible habit. Every day we tell ourselves that we must start doing things immediately, and each day we postpone our work, are late for deadlines, and put off keeping our promises to other people. Because we are always in the process of procrastinating, we are also always trying to catch up. We are always doing yesterday's jobs today, and tomorrow we will be doing today's unfinished work. There are people who rarely procrastinate. They are highly efficient and well organized, and they seem to get everything done on time. I suspect that they never leave home in the morning before they make the bad, never go to sleep at night before they finish their work, always answer their mail promptly, and are never late for appointments. As a result, they are probably always one step ahead of you and me! Maybe the way to overcome procrastination is to change our habits gradually. We can start with a daily schedule of the things we want or need to accomplish. But let's be reasonable. We shouldn't crowd the list with too many tasks, and we should be realistic about what we can do. Especially in the beginning we should be lenient with ourselves. After all, if we get discouraged at the start, we will go right back to our old habits. Finally, if we begin to follow our own schedule for each day, we will stop postponing the chores that face us. Life will become far less complicated and each day will be easier to face. We will undoubtedly feel better about ourselves, too, because we will know that we can overcome our weakness and improve ourselves.
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