2011年12月大学英语四级考试真题与答案解析

appleyang 2012-04-113228阅读
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  2011年12月英语四级考试真题及参考答案
  Part I Writing
  【标准版】Nothing Succeeds Without a Strong Will
  Nothing runs smoothly in our life. To achieve things successfully, a strong will is essential. Life is like a Marathon. Many people can’t get to the terminal. This is not because they are lack of vitality but because their will of success is not strong enough.
  To take quitting smoking as an example, some regard it as a piece of cake. They make up their minds to quit it in the morning, but in the evening they feel that the smell of cigarettes is tempting. Their throats are sore, their mouths are thirsty, and their hands are shaking. After the painful mental struggle, they tell themselves that “One cigarette is enough. Just take one, and the next day I will quit it.” By doing this, they surrender to their weak will. In the end, they have quitted smoking “a hundred times”, but in no time they succeed.
  Just like quitting smoking, nothing succeeds without a strong will. To be successful in one’s life, a strong will means that you know where you go and you will persist on the road you choose. Undoubtedly success belongs to those who overcome their weak will and who hang in there until the last minute.
  【文章点评】
  本文属于话题类作文,只看题目 “Nothing Succeeds without a strong will”考生会觉得比较抽象,难以下手。细看题目说明中给出了提示,要求考生结合戒烟屡次不成功的幽默引语对该话题进行分析阐述。
  总体来说,这是一篇“中等偏上”的考生作文。本文先点题指出“坚强意志”的重要性;第二段从反面举例阐述——具体描写了意志不坚定者的心理活动,阐述为什么会戒烟失败;最后从戒烟延伸到生活中的其他事情,并复述坚强意志的内涵,点题收尾。
  总体上来看,文章思路清晰,采用了生动的比喻和形象的心理描写,语言流畅,用语地道。但一些重复表达(如第二段和第三段中的weak will)显得单调,可用shaky ones, weak-willed persons,the strong-willed等灵活表达。在备考中,多积累不同表达,相信会写出更生动的文章。
  在论述上,叙述略显罗嗦。第二段心理描写过多,虽然流畅生动,但却使这篇考场作文超过了规定字数,反而成为失分点,这一点要引以为戒。
  【高分版】Nothing Succeeds Without a Strong Will
  As we have read from above, quitting-smoking seems easy, but in reality it is rarely achieved. There is something provoking and interesting in this paradox, just because sword does not wear the stone as dripping water does.
  The ability to do something over and over again in a short time may imply its easiness, but in a long run, a lifetime maybe, things turn out to be quite the opposite. Also, as is often the case, one may have obtained all the tools and opportunities to achieve something, but in the end they still fail due to the will shortage.
  So how could we avoid the dilemma? Here is the prime condition of success: will and perseverance. Concentrate you energy, thought and mind exclusively on the business in which you are engaged, hang on in there and be patient, for, as Emerson put it, no one can cheat you out of your ultimate success but yourself.
【文章点评】
  本次四级作文探讨的话题是成功与毅力之间的关系,话题不算新,一般考生对此都比较熟悉,所以对考生来说难度不大。写好这篇作文,需要抓住两点,一是紧跟题目要求,即对上述幽默性的话语做出评论,二是在评论的基础上要亮出自己的观点。
  范文开头第一句即一针见血地对上述幽默性话语做出总结性概括,即戒烟看似简单实则很难,随后指出该话语本质上是一个悖论,并且以一个“水滴石穿”的俗语来指出困难所在,这句也是本文的一个亮点,体现作者在西方俗语方面丰富的知识储备。
  第二段作者则进一步深入分析该话语,指出做某事在短期看来很容易,长期来看,恰恰相反,人们做事的结果也因此总是失败,原因则在最后一句点出:缺乏毅力。
  第三段作者进一步给出了自己的观点,告诉大家如何避免陷入这种两难境地:首要条件即需要坚强的意志和长期的坚持。最后再以艾默生的一句名言 “没人能够骗你远离你最终的成功,除非你自己承认失败”来总结全文,切中主题,铿锵有力。
  Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
  1. A person of integrity not only sets high moral and ethical standards but also _______.
  A) sticks to them in their daily life
  B) makes them known to others
  C) understands their true values
  D)sees that others also follow them
  【答案】A) sticks to them in their daily life
  【解析】第一题的答案就在全文第一句。关键词是not only…. But also…. ,关键句是The key to integrity is consistency--not only setting high personal standards for oneself (honesty, responsibility, respect for others, fairness) but also living up to those standards each day. 这里的live up to 和 选项里的 stick to 属于同义替换。
  2. What role does integrity play in personal and professional relationships?
  A) It helps to create team spirit
  B) It facilitates communication
  C) It is the basis of mutual trust
  D) It inspires mutual respect
  【答案】C) It is the basis of mutual trust
  【解析】关键词是personal and professional,关键句是Trust is essential in any important relationship, whether personal or professional. Who can trust someone who is dishonest or unfair? Thus, integrity must be one of our most important goals.
  结合紧接着的问句,我们很容易锁定trust这个选项。
  3. why must we learn to identify the risks we are going to take?
  A. To ensure we make responsible choices.
  B. To avoid being overwhelmed by stress.
  C. so that we don’t break any rules.
  D. so that we don’t run into trouble.
  【答案】A. To ensure we make responsible choices.
  【解析】关键词是identify the risks,关键句是Making ethical decisions is a critical part of avoiding future problems. We must learn to recognize risks, because if we can't see the risks we're taking, we can't make responsible choices. 所以答案很明显是A。
  4. Violation of a rule is misconduct even if _______?
  A. it has caused no harm.
  B. it is claimed to be unintentional.
  C. it has gone unnoticed.
  D. it is committed with good intentions.
  【答案】B. it is claimed to be unintentional.
  【解析】关键词是misconduct,关键句是But the fact that such a violation is "unintentional" does not excuse the misconduct. 和原文意义高度一致的,就是这个unintentional。因此答案是:B. it is claimed to be unintentional.
  5. What should one do if he doesn’t wish to fool himself?
  A. Avoid making excuses.
  B. Listen to other people’s advice.
  C. Make his intensions public.
  D. Have others watch over his shoulder.
  【答案】A. Avoid making excuses.
  【解析】关键词是fool oneself,关键句是To avoid fooling yourself, watch out for excuses and try this test这里的watch out for 和 选项里的avoid属于同义替换。所以答案是A。
  6. Those who take risks they regret later on _______.
  A. will often become more cautious
  B. are usually very aggressive
  C. value immediate benefits most.
  D. may lose everything in the end
  【答案】C. value immediate benefits most.
  【解析】关键词是regret later,关键句是Those who take risks they later regret usually focus on immediate benefits ("what's in it for me")。很明显,选项 value immediate benefits most 是正确答案。这里的value 和 focus on 属于同义替换。
  7. According to the author, a cheater who doesn’t get caught right away will _______.
  A) pay more dearly
  B) become more confident
  C) be widely admired
  D) feel somewhat lucky
  【答案】A) pay more dearly
  【解析】关键词是get caught,关键句是Those who don't get caught pay an even higher price. 这里的higher price 和选项里的more dearly 属于同义替换。所以答案是A。
8. Cheaters at exam don’t care about their education, all they care about is how to steal a grade.
  【答案】steal a grade
  【解析】关键词:care about
  关键句:I'm not interested in what you're trying to teach; all I care about is stealing a grade, regardless of the effect on others."
  9. Integrity matters in that all social activities rely on people’s honesty and good faith.
  【答案】honesty and good faith
  【解析】关键词是rely on,关键句是We must rely on the honesty and good faith of others every day.
  10. Many Americans lost faith in the integrity of their political leaders as a result of the Watergate scandal.
  【答案】the Watergate scandal
  【解析】关键词是political and economic leaders,关键句是Watergate, have undermined the faith of many Americans in the integrity of political and economic leaders and society as a whole.
  Part III Listening Comprehension
  Section A
  11.
  W: This crazy bus schedule has got me completely confused. I can’t figure out when my bus to Cleveland leaves?
  M: Why don’t you just go to the ticket window and ask?
  Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?
  【答案】B) Go and ask the staff.
  【解析】这是一道事实细节题。从对话中可知,女士搞不清楚列车时刻表,男士建议她去售票窗口咨询。ticket window售票窗口。
  12.
  W: I really enjoyed the TV special about drafts last night. Did you get home in time to see it?
  W: Oh, yes, but I wish I could have stayed awake long enough to see the whole thing.
  Q: What does the man mean?
  【答案】A) He fell asleep in the middle of the TV program.
  【解析】这是道推理判断题,考查男士的言下之意以及虚拟语气。could have done意为本可以做某事,但未做。从对话中可知,男士确实回家看了电视节目,但是他说道:I wish I could have stayed awake long enough to see the whole thing. 我真希望自己当时能再晚点睡着,这样我就可以看完整场节目了。说明他没有看完整场节目就睡着了。
  13.
  W: Airport, please. I’m running a little late. So just take the fastest way even if it’s not the most direct.
  M: Sure, but there is a lot of traffic everywhere today because of the football game.
  Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?
  【答案】B) She is worried about missing her flight.
  【解析】这是道场景题,略有难度。刚开始,我们还无法很快判断出该对话发生的场景,很多同学一听到airport可能会误以为对话发生在机场,但如果我们继续听下去,就会发现,该对话应该发生在出租车上,因为女士说了句“请选择最快的路”,而男士说“因为有球赛,所以到处都交通拥堵”可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。选项A不对,原文是说要挑the fastest way哪怕不是the most direct way;选项C也不准确,才刚上车,并没有拥堵,司机只是提前说明因为球赛会碰到拥堵;选项D错误,女士是为了赶去乘飞机的,而不是去看球赛。
  14.
  W: May I make a recommendation, sir? Our seafood with this special sauce is very good.
  M: Thank you, but I don’t eat shellfish. I’m allergic to it.
  Q: Where does this conversation most probably take place?
  【答案】A) At a restaurant
  【解析】这是道场景题,较为简单。从对话中可知,女士希望向男士推荐一道菜,从首句中即可推断出该对话最有可能发生在餐馆中,男士说,他过敏,不吃贝壳类海鲜,可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。
  15.
  W: Now one more question if you don’t mind, what position in the company appeals to you most?
  M: Well, I’d like the position of sales manager if that position is still vacant.
  Q: What do we learn about the man?
  【答案】A) He is being interviewed for a job.
  【解析】这是较为简单的细节推理题。 从position, company这几个关键词中,我们就可以快速判断出此题的场景为面试,因此男士应该正在接受一场面试。 C选项错误,他想要销售经理的职位,但并不表示他本身就是销售经理。
  16.
  M: I don’t think I want to live in the dormitory next year. I need more privacy.
  W: I know what you mean. But check out the cost if renting an apartment first. I won’t be surprised if you change your mind.
  Q: What does the woman imply?
  【答案】B) The man is unlikely to move out of the dormitory.
  【解析】这是推理判断题,询问女士的言下之意。最后一句,女士表示“你改变主意的话,我不会觉得奇怪”,可知,男士不太可能搬出宿舍。A选项是个干扰项,虽然该选项看上去意思和B选项差不多,但对话中并没有提到男士想找一个更安静的地方,他想搬离寝室,是为了更多的个人空间。
17.
  M: You’re on the right track. I just think you need to narrow the topic down.
  W: Yeah, you’re right. I always start by choosing two boarder topics when I’m doing a research paper.
  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
  【答案】D) The woman is going to make her topic more focused.
  【解析】这是推理判断题。从对话中可知,男士希望女士缩小主题的范围,女士回答“你是对的。”说明女士会采纳男士的建议,缩小主题。
  18.
  W: This picnic should beat the last one we went to, doesn’t it?
  M: Oh, yeah, we had to spend the whole time inside. Good thing, the weather was cooperative this time.
  Q: What do we learn about the speakers from the conversation?
  【答案】B) They didn’t quite enjoy their last picnic.
  【解析】这是推理判断题。beat一词是个难点,beat本意有“打败”的意思,这次的野餐打败了上次,即这次比上次好,下文中,男士说“上次我们不得不呆在室内,但这次天气不错。”可以再次确认他们不喜欢上次的野餐,因此,正确答案为B。
  11.
  W: This crazy bus schedule has got me completely confused. I can’t figure out when my bus to Cleveland leaves?
  M: Why don’t you just go to the ticket window and ask?
  Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?
  【答案】B) Go and ask the staff.
  【解析】这是一道事实细节题。从对话中可知,女士搞不清楚列车时刻表,男士建议她去售票窗口咨询。ticket window售票窗口。
  12.
  W: I really enjoyed the TV special about drafts last night. Did you get home in time to see it?
  W: Oh, yes, but I wish I could have stayed awake long enough to see the whole thing.
  Q: What does the man mean?
  【答案】A) He fell asleep in the middle of the TV program.
  【解析】这是道推理判断题,考查男士的言下之意以及虚拟语气。could have done意为本可以做某事,但未做。从对话中可知,男士确实回家看了电视节目,但是他说道:I wish I could have stayed awake long enough to see the whole thing. 我真希望自己当时能再晚点睡着,这样我就可以看完整场节目了。说明他没有看完整场节目就睡着了。
13.
  W: Airport, please. I’m running a little late. So just take the fastest way even if it’s not the most direct.
  M: Sure, but there is a lot of traffic everywhere today because of the football game.
  Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?
  【答案】B) She is worried about missing her flight.
  【解析】这是道场景题,略有难度。刚开始,我们还无法很快判断出该对话发生的场景,很多同学一听到airport可能会误以为对话发生在机场,但如果我们继续听下去,就会发现,该对话应该发生在出租车上,因为女士说了句“请选择最快的路”,而男士说“因为有球赛,所以到处都交通拥堵”可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。选项A不对,原文是说要挑the fastest way哪怕不是the most direct way;选项C也不准确,才刚上车,并没有拥堵,司机只是提前说明因为球赛会碰到拥堵;选项D错误,女士是为了赶去乘飞机的,而不是去看球赛。
  14.
  W: May I make a recommendation, sir? Our seafood with this special sauce is very good.
  M: Thank you, but I don’t eat shellfish. I’m allergic to it.
  Q: Where does this conversation most probably take place?
  【答案】A) At a restaurant
  【解析】这是道场景题,较为简单。从对话中可知,女士希望向男士推荐一道菜,从首句中即可推断出该对话最有可能发生在餐馆中,男士说,他过敏,不吃贝壳类海鲜,可以帮助我们再次确认对话发生的场景。
  15.
  W: Now one more question if you don’t mind, what position in the company appeals to you most?
  M: Well, I’d like the position of sales manager if that position is still vacant.
  Q: What do we learn about the man?
  【答案】A) He is being interviewed for a job.
  【解析】这是较为简单的细节推理题。 从position, company这几个关键词中,我们就可以快速判断出此题的场景为面试,因此男士应该正在接受一场面试。 C选项错误,他想要销售经理的职位,但并不表示他本身就是销售经理。
  16.
  M: I don’t think I want to live in the dormitory next year. I need more privacy.
  W: I know what you mean. But check out the cost if renting an apartment first. I won’t be surprised if you change your mind.
  Q: What does the woman imply?
  【答案】B) The man is unlikely to move out of the dormitory.
  【解析】这是推理判断题,询问女士的言下之意。最后一句,女士表示“你改变主意的话,我不会觉得奇怪”,可知,男士不太可能搬出宿舍。A选项是个干扰项,虽然该选项看上去意思和B选项差不多,但对话中并没有提到男士想找一个更安静的地方,他想搬离寝室,是为了更多的个人空间。
  17.
  M: You’re on the right track. I just think you need to narrow the topic down.
  W: Yeah, you’re right. I always start by choosing two boarder topics when I’m doing a research paper.
  Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
  【答案】D) The woman is going to make her topic more focused.
  【解析】这是推理判断题。从对话中可知,男士希望女士缩小主题的范围,女士回答“你是对的。”说明女士会采纳男士的建议,缩小主题。
  18.
  W: This picnic should beat the last one we went to, doesn’t it?
  M: Oh, yeah, we had to spend the whole time inside. Good thing, the weather was cooperative this time.
  Q: What do we learn about the speakers from the conversation?
  【答案】B) They didn’t quite enjoy their last picnic.
  【解析】这是推理判断题。beat一词是个难点,beat本意有“打败”的意思,这次的野餐打败了上次,即这次比上次好,下文中,男士说“上次我们不得不呆在室内,但这次天气不错。”可以再次确认他们不喜欢上次的野餐,因此,正确答案为B。
  Section B
  Passage One
  While Gail Obcamp, an American artist was giving a speech on the art of Japanese brush painting to an audience that included visitors from Japan, she was confused to see that many of her Japanese listeners have their eyes closed. Were they tuned off because an American had the nerve to instruct Japanese in their own art form? Were they deliberately tried to signal their rejection of her? Obcamp later found out that her listeners were not being disrespectful. Japanese listeners sometimes close their eyes to enhance concentration. Her listeners were showing their respect for her by chewing on her words. Some day you may be either a speaker or a listener in a situation involving people from other countries or members of a minority group in North America. Learning how different cultures signal respect can help you avoid misunderstandings. Here are some examples. In the deaf culture of North America, Many listeners show applause not by clapping their hands but by waving them in the air. In some cultures, both overseas and in some minority groups in North America, listeners are considered disrespectful if they look directly at the speaker. Respect is shown by looking in the general direction but avoiding direct eye contact. In some countries, whistling by listeners is a sign of approval while in other courtiers it is a form of insult.
  【听力点睛】本文主要介绍不同文化中都是如何表示尊重的,以及如何利用这点来避免跨文化交流中的误会产生。一开始先用一位美国艺术家Gail Obcamp做演讲的故事来举例子,引出对闭上眼睛这样一种动作不同的理解;继而发表了作者的看法:在和不同文化的人交流的时候,如果你懂得其他文化中是如何表达尊重的,可以避免误会;接着又是例子,是关于北美洲聋哑人是如何用动作来交流的。还有一些国家,对同样的手势会有截然不同的理解,进一步验证了作者的观点。
  做这篇题目的重点在于能够迅速拎出来作者的观点。
  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  26. What did Obcamp’s speech focus on?
  A) Characteristics of Japanese artists
  B) Some features of Japanese culture
  C) The art of Japanese brush painting
  D) The uniqueness of Japanese art
  【答案】C) The art of Japanese brush painting
  27. Why do Japanese listeners sometimes close their eyes while listening to a speech?
  A) To calm themselves down
  B) To enhance concentration
  C) To show their impatience
  D) To signal their lack of interest
  【答案】B) To enhance concentration.
  28. What does the speaker try to explain?
  A) How listeners in different cultures show respect
  B) How speakers can win approval from the audience
  C) How speakers can misunderstand the audience
  D) How different Western and Eastern art forms are
  【答案】A) How listeners in different cultures show respect.
Passage Two
  Chris is in charge of purchasing and maintaining equipment in his Division at Taxlong Company. He is soon going to have an evaluation interview with his supervisor and the personnel director to discuss the work he has done in the past year. Salary, promotion and plans for the coming year will also be discussed at the meeting. Chris has made several changes for his Division in the past year. First, he bought new equipment for one of the departments. He has been particularly happy about the new equipment because many of the employees have told him how much it has helped them. Along with improving the equipment, Chris began a program to train employees to use equipment better and do simple maintenance themselves. The training saved time for the employees and money for the company. Unfortunately, one serious problem developed during the year. Two employees that Chris hired were stealing, and he had to fire them. Chris knows that a new job for a purchasing and maintenance manager for the whole company will be open in a few months, and he would like to be promoted to the job. Chris knows, however, that someone else wants that new job, too. Kim is in charge of purchasing and maintenance in another Division of the company. She has also made several changes over the year. Chris knows that his boss likes Kim’s work, and he expects that his work will be compared with hers.
  【听力点睛】这篇文章讲述了Chris在职场上的一次经历。Chris在Taxlong公司负责采购和维修设备。他即将要和领导针对过去一年的工作进行一个回顾总结,他心里希望可以得到晋升。在过去这一年里,他也做了不少贡献,买了许多能够提高效率的设备,但是他手下有两个职员因为偷窃而被开除了。除此以外,公司里面还有一个女同事Kim,是他这次晋级的竞争对手,她也一样很优秀。
这篇文章没有什么生词,难度较低。题目中考察细节问题比较多,需要同学们可以准确地在看到题目之后locate文章中对应题目的是哪一部分。
  Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  29. What is Chris’s main responsibility at Taxlong Company?
  A) Directing personnel evaluation.
  B) Buying and maintain equipment.
  C) Drawing up plans for in-service training.
  D) Interviewing and recruiting employees.
  【答案】 B) Buying and maintain equipment.
  30. What problem did Chris encounter in his Division?
  A) Some of his equipment was damaged in a fire.
  B) The training program he ran was failure.
  C) Two of his workers were injured at work.
  D) Two of his employees committed theft.
  【答案】D)Two of his employees committed theft.
  31. What does Chris hope for in the near future?
  A) A better relationship with his boss.
  B) Advancement to a higher position
  C) A better-paying job in another company
  D) Improvement in the company’s management
  【答案】B)Advancement to a higher position.
  32 What do we learn about Kim from the passage?
  A)She has more self-confidence than Chris.
  B)She works with Chris in the same division.
  C)She has more management experience than Chris.
  D) She is competing with Chris for the new job.
  【答案】D) She is competing with Chris for the new job.
  Passage Three
  Proverbs, sometimes called sayings, are examples of folk wisdom. They are little lessons which older people of a culture pass down to the younger people to teach them about life. Many proverbs remind people of the values that are important in the culture. Values teach people how to act, what is right, and what is wrong. Because the values of each culture are different, understanding the values of another culture helps explain how people think and act. Understanding your own culture values is important too. If you can accept that people from other cultures act according to their values, not yours, getting along with them will be much easier. Many proverbs are very old. So some of the values they teach may not be as important in the culture as they once were. For example, Americans today do not pay much attention to the proverb “Haste makes waste”, because patience is not important to them. But if you know about past values, it helps you to understand the present and many of the older values are still strong today. Benjamin Franklin, a famous American diplomat, writer and scientist, died in 1790, but his proverb “Time is money” is taken more seriously by Americans of today than ever before. A study of proverbs from around the world shows that some values are shared by many cultures. In many cases though, the same idea is expressed differently.
  【听力点睛】这篇文章是一篇说明文。从科学客观的角度讲述了Proverb谚语的一些知识。包括它的定义-----是老一辈人传给后代的生活经验,生活价值观。不同国家,不同文化中的谚语往往可以揭示不同的价值观。如果能够理解其他文化的谚语,价值观,那么会在跨文化交际中避免很多麻烦。
  作者又提到,一些谚语年代久远。其中包含的价值观随着时代的变迁可能重要性也发生了改变。并且举了Haste makes waste. 和Time is money. 这样两个例子。
  作者最后再次表明,通过学习不同国家的谚语,会发现一些国家会有相同或者相似的价值观,只是有可能表达的方式有所不同而已。
  这篇说明文对考生的要求在于快速划分出作者想说明的几个点。一般通常写说明文章的顺序都是先说明要点,然后用一些事实来进一步说明。
  Questions 32- 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  33. Why are proverbs so important?
  A) They help us see the important values of a culture.
  B) They guide us in handling human relationships.
  C) They help us express ourselves more effectively.
  D) They are an infinite source of human knowledge.
  【答案】A)They help us see the important values of a culture.
  34. According to the speaker what happens to some proverbs with the passage of time?
  A)Their wordings may become different.
  B) The values they reflect may change.
  C)Their origins can no longer be traced.
  D) They may be misinterpreted.
  【答案】B) The values they reflect may change.
  35. What do we learn from the study of proverbs from around the world?
  A)
  B)
  C)
  D)
  【答案】
  复合式听写更新中……46
Section A
  47 growth
  48 stable
  49 challenges
  50 certainly
  51 role
  52 combined
  53 significant
  54 included
  55 comprise
  56 solutions
  【解析】
  这是一篇讨论能源资源的说明文,话题是考生比较熟悉的能源问题,不断增长的人口与可再生资源的矛盾该如何解决。文中指出能源的一些可替代形式如生物能源、风能太阳能等可再生资源将在未来发挥越来越重要的作用。但是专家指出,即使这些资源储备量惊人,但是到2050年也只能满足世界30%的需求。文章最后两段探讨了各能源在市场上的需求,以及解决未来能源需求的其他方案。
  总体来说,这篇文章理解难度不大,填空难度适中,所选词汇也都是四级考纲的词汇。选项较具有干扰项,多为c和s开头的单词,考生在考试时要特别注意。
  Part V Cloze
  Employers fear they will be unable recruit students with the skills they need as the economic recovery kicks in, a new survey 67.reveals.
  Nearly half of organizations told researchers they were already struggling to find 68.staffwith skills in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM), 69.while even more companies expect to experience 70.shortages of employees with Stem skills in the next three years.
  The Confederation of British Industry and the vocational qualifications body EDI 71.surveyed 694 organizations across the public and 72.private sectors, which together employ 2.4 million people.
  Half are 73.concerned they will not be able to fill graduate posts in the coming years, while a third said they would not be able to 74.recruit enough employees with the right A-level skills.
  "75.As we move further into recovery and businesses plan 76.for growth, the demand for people with high-quality skills and qualifications will 77.intensify," said Richard Lambert, director general, CBI.
  "In the future, people with qualifications in science and maths will be particularly sought after, and firms say it is already hard to find people with the right 78.technical or engineering skills. The new government must make it a top 79.priority to encourage more young people to study science-related 80.subjects."
  The survey found that young people would improve their job prospects 81.if they studied business studies, maths, English and physics or chemistry at A-level. The A-levels that employers 82.rate least are psychology and sociology. And while many employers don't insist on a 83.particular degree subject, a third prefer to hire those with a Stem-related subject.
  The research 84.highlighted worries about the lack of progress in improving basic skills in the UK 85.workforce. Half of employers expressed worries about employees' basic literacy and numeracy skills, while the biggest problem is with IT skills, 86.where two-thirds reported concerns.
  【评析】这是一篇讨论“雇主和他们所需要的大学生技能” 的文章。今年四级的完型填空,涉及5处名词,2处介词,6处动词,4处形容词和3处副词。第82题稍难,像80和85都可以通过上下文判断出来,其余部分只要在句子内部或者句子之间进行上下文逻辑比对或语法搭配,即可完成。词义辨析考查较多,考查学生词汇的储备量,因此,考生要特别注意四级词汇的牢固掌握。
  【答案】
  67.reveals
  68.staff
  69.while
  70.shortages
  71.surveyed
  72.private
  73.concerned
  74.recruit
  75.As
  76.for
  77.intensify
  78.technical
  79.priority
  80.subjects
  81.if
  82.rate
  83.particular
  84.highlighted
  85.workforce
  86.where
  67.
  【答案】reveals
  【解析】第一段提出话题,“据一项最新调查显示,现在的雇主们害怕他们雇不到符合要求的毕业生”,launch意思为“发起一场运动”,submit意为“提交,服从”,generate生成,reveal透露,揭露,显示。这里根据段意,reveal最合适。
68.
  【答案】staff
  【解析】根据句意,基本有一半的组织机构告诉调查者他们在努力寻找具有四个方面(科学、技术、工程和数学)才能的职员。这里partners,audience, officials显然不符合题意。
  69.
  【答案】while
  【解析】这里和前面已经叙述的事实构成并列,“同时,更多公司预测,接下来的三年他们都将会遭遇雇员四缺现象(科学、技术、工程和数学知识技能欠缺)”,因此排除其他三项。选while。
  70.
  【答案】shortages
  【解析】由第二段句首struggling可判断,机构组织寻找这些人才非常不易,那么这种人才显然是不够的,短缺的。absence是表示“缺席,不在”,不能描述短缺,因此排除。此题的另一个关键是确定experience的词性,动词。
  71.
  【答案】surveyed
  【解析】第三段用一句话简介经过工业联盟调查了69个行业和组织,首先排除D和C,search是指搜查;细查某处以搜寻某人或某物,搜索;而survey是指调查某部分人的行为、意见等(通常以询问方式进行),符合题意。
  72.
  【答案】private
  【解析】根据上一题的意思,调查在公共和私人部门中展开,后面一句的together暗示and后面的这个空是和“公共的”对立的,因此填private。
  73.
  【答案】concerned
  【解析】第四段描写了这个调查的具体情况。有一半人…,这里缺少动词,confront一般和with连用,conform 符合,遵照,confuse 使混乱,使困惑,这里根据上下文的意思,雇主们都担心这种现象的发生,因此选concerned, be concerned 担心的,烦恼的,忧虑的。
  74.
  【答案】recruit
  【解析】本题考查词义辨析,三分之一的被调查者坦言他们可能顾不到符合相应资质的雇员,只有recruit符合题意。
  75.
  【答案】As
  【解析】根据句子结构判断,前半句是一个伴随状语,“随着…的深入进行,…需求越来越强”,而不是条件状语或让步状语。
76.
  【答案】for
  【解析】这里考查介词搭配。这里侧重于描述执行进展的计划的目的,选for。
  77.
  【答案】intensify
  【解析】本题考查词义辨析。根据前文,这种需求是不断增加的,intensify 增强,强化,变激烈;dominate指在…中占主导地位,这里并没有给出一个具体的范围,不符合句意。enforce 实施,执行;stretch 伸展。
  78.
  【答案】technical
  【解析】本题比较简单,属于送分题。前卖第二段已经指出在四个方面技能欠缺,选项中显然只有technical符合文意。
  79.
  【答案】priority
  【解析】这里考查短语固定搭配。make…a top priority 让…成为首要任务,当务之急。
  80.
  【答案】subjects
  【解析】这里鼓励年轻人学习科学相关的学科,从倒数第二段也可判断。academy 学院,研究院; procedure 步骤,程序,thought 思想,不符题意,排除。
  81.
  【答案】if
  【解析】这里考查考生对前后两个完整的句子的关系的理解,主句中的would是一个虚拟语气的标志词,据此代入选项if,通读上下文,符合题意之后确定。
  82.
  【答案】rate
  【解析】词义辨析题。rate评定某人、某事物的价值;order 命令,整理;discuss 讨论,论述,observe 观察,遵守。根据文意,雇主们认为A-levels中价值最低的学科是心理学和社会学,因此选rate。
  83.
  【答案】particular
  【解析】文章指出现在雇主们需要的是具备Stem四方面素质的人才,因此许多雇主们不赞成对某一特殊学科的专业学位,而非typical典型的,general一般的,或者是积极的positive。
  84.
  【答案】highlighted
  【解析】词义辨析题。根据最后一句,该研究“强调” 对…的担忧, focus一般和on连用,其余两项意义不符。
  85.
  【答案】workforce
  【解析】词义辨析题。“提高英国劳动力的基本技能”,masses 民众,faculty 全体教员,community 社区,团体;整篇文章都在讨论就业和雇佣,显然选workforce。
  86.
  【答案】where
  【解析】考查定语关系副词。这个定语从句完整,由此判断缺少关系副词,首先排除A,B两个关系代词,再根据意思排除why。
  Section B
  Passage One
  57, C encourage boys to express their emotions freely
  58, A perform relatively better
  59, C It fails to give boys the attention they need
  60, A teaching can be tailored to suit the characteristics of boys
  61, C They have sharper vision
  【解析】这篇文章针对传统的男女生一起上学,一起接受教育提出了质疑。作者从文章一开头就表明了自己的看法:对于男生而言,单性教育,即男生们一起上学会对男生的身心发展更为有利。文中出现一个短语,received wisdom,即是“人们普遍的看法,公认的看法”。也是作者所批判的一种观点。传统观点认为,男生和女生混合教育会对男生发展更有利。
  但是作者认为单性教育对男生有以下几个好处:可以让男生们更自由地表达自己的情感,可以学习自己感兴趣的艺术,舞蹈,音乐等学科。不用去遵守人们在传统印象中对男生的期盼。而且单性教育可以针对男生的身心发展特点而制定学习计划。
  并且作者觉得,目前英国教育把女生当做关注重点,忽视了对男生的重视。
  Passage Two
  62. C . It makes all the hard work worthwhile.
  63. D. Disputes over money may ruin a relationship.
  64. A. conflicts between couples tend to rise
  65. D. men and women view money in different ways.
  66. C. discuss money matters to maintain a healthy relationship.
  【解析】这是一篇关于金钱对夫妻关系的影响的文章。文中第一段主要通过度假这件事来体现不同人对待金钱的不同态度。作者认为人只能活一次,如果不能去度假的话,那么工作再努力也没有意义。第二段主要谈到了大萧条时期,不太良好的经济状况常常会影响夫妻关系,可能会导致争吵,甚至会导致离婚或者分居的成本增加,对夫妻感情造成伤害。第三段讲了Kim Stephenson,一个心理学家的观点,即男人和女人对待金钱的态度是不一样的,男人把金钱看作是得到社会地位的途径,看作向父母展现自己成功的一种方式。第四段,作者建议夫妻可以对金钱持有不同的观点,但是不可以对它采取回避的态度,避而不谈。
  相对来说,这篇文章的难度比较大。文章看懂并不难,但是题目中,推理题和大意题比较多,需要在充分理解作者意图,了解文章主旨的基础上,才能选出正确答案。
  Part VI Translation
  87. Charity groups organized various activities to raise money for the survivors of the earthquake. (为地震幸存者筹款)
  【解析】本题考察动词raise的用法。raise money 表示“筹款”。同时考生要注意survivor (幸存者)的拼写。
  88. Linda couldn’t have received my e-mail (不可能收到我的电子邮件), otherwise, she could have replied.
  【解析】本题考察混合型虚拟语气。otherwise提示我们句子后半句是与过去事实相反(事实是Linda没有回复),因此用could+have+过去分词。句子前半句是在陈述一种事实,从句子后半句could have +过去分词我们可以推断前面“没有收到我的电子邮件”也是在发生在过去,且对现在产生了影响(还没有收到回信),因此这里用现在完成时,could have +过去分词。
  89. It’s my mother who/that keeps encouraging me not to lose heart (一直鼓励我不要灰心) when I have difficulties in my study.
  【解析】本题考察了强调句型和动词encourage的搭配。①强调句型it’s … that/who… ②encourage sb. (not) to do sth. 鼓励某人(不)做某事。
  90. The publishing house has to consider the popularity of this novel. (考虑这本小说的受欢迎程度)。
  【解析】本题考察了“考虑”的表达,可以用动词consider,也可以用词组take… into consideration。同时考生要注意名词popularity (受欢迎程度) 的拼写。
  91. It’s wrong to define happiness only by money.(仅仅以金钱来定义幸福)
  【解析】本题考察了“定义”的表达,为define。
标签 2011年12月英语四级考试真题与答案 3g.bigear.cn 用手机随时随地学英语
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