2010年12月六级真题

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2010年12月大学英语六级考试真题及答案详解

 2010年12月大学英语六级考试真题

  Part I Writing (30 minutes)

  Direction: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled My Views on University Ranking. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.

  1. 目前高校排名相当盛行;

  2. 对于这种做法人们看法不一;

  3. 在我看来……

  My Views on University Ranking

  Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  Into the Unknown

  The world has never seen population ageing before. Can it cope?

  Until the early 1990s nobody much thought about whole populations getting older. The UN had the foresight to convene a “world assembly on ageing” back in 1982, but that came and went. By 1994 the World Bank had noticed that something big was happening. In a report entitled “Averting the Old Age Crisis”, it argued that pension arrangements in most countries were unsustainable.

  For the next ten years a succession of books, mainly by Americans, sounded the alarm. They had titles like Young vs Old, Gray Dawn and The Coming Generational Storm, and their message was blunt: health-care systems were heading for the rocks, pensioners were taking young people to the cleaners, and soon there would be intergenerational warfare.

  Since then the debate has become less emotional, not least because a lot more is known about the subject. Books, conferences and research papers have multiplied. International organisations such as the OECD and the EU issue regular reports. Population ageing is on every agenda, from G8 economic conferences to NATO summits. The World Economic Forum plans to consider the future of pensions and health care at its prestigious Davos conference early next year. The media, including this newspaper, are giving the subject extensive coverage.

  Whether all that attention has translated into sufficient action is another question. Governments in rich countries now accept that their pension and health-care promises will soon become unaffordable, and many of them have embarked on reforms, but so far only timidly. That is not surprising: politicians with an eye on the next election will hardly rush to introduce unpopular measures that may not bear fruit for years, perhaps decades.

  The outline of the changes needed is clear. To avoid fiscal (财政) meltdown, public pensions and health-care provision will have to be reined back severely and taxes may have to go up. By far the most effective method to restrain pension spending is to give people the opportunity to work longer, because it increases tax revenues and reduces spending on pensions at the same time. It may even keep them alive longer. John Rother, the AARP’s head of policy and strategy, points to studies showing that other things being equal, people who remain at work have lower death rates than their retired peers.

  Younger people today mostly accept that they will have to work for longer and that their pensions will be less generous. Employers still need to be persuaded that older workers are worth holding on to. That may be because they have had plenty of younger ones to choose from, partly thanks to the post-war baby-boom and partly because over the past few decades many more women have entered the labour force, increasing employers’ choice. But the reservoir of women able and willing to take up paid work is running low, and the baby-boomers are going grey.

  In many countries immigrants have been filling such gaps in the labour force as have already emerged (and remember that the real shortage is still around ten years off). Immigration in the developed world is the highest it has ever been, and it is making a useful difference. In still-fertile America it currently accounts for about 40% of total population growth, and in fast-ageing western Europe for about 90%.

  On the face of it, it seems the perfect solution. Many developing countries have lots of young people in need of jobs; many rich countries need helping hands that will boost tax revenues and keep up economic growth. But over the next few decades labour forces in rich countries are set to shrink so much that inflows of immigrants would have to increase enormously to compensate: to at least twice their current size in western Europe’s most youthful countries, and three times in the older ones. Japan would need a large multiple of the few immigrants it has at present. Public opinion polls show that people in most rich countries already think that immigration is too high. Further big increases would be politically unfeasible.

  To tackle the problem of ageing populations at its root, “old” countries would have to rejuvenate (使年轻) themselves by having more of their own children. A number of them have tried, some more successfully than others. But it is not a simple matter of offering financial incentives or providing more child care. Modern urban life in rich countries is not well adapted to large families. Women find it hard to combine family and career. They often compromise by having just one child.

  And if fertility in ageing countries does not pick up? It will not be the end of the world, at least not for quite a while yet, but the world will slowly become a different place. Older societies may be less innovative and more strongly disinclined to take risks than younger ones. By 2025 at the latest, about half the voters in America and most of those in western European countries will be over 50—and older people turn out to vote in much greater number than younger ones. Academic studies have found no evidence so far that older voters have used their power at the ballot box to push for policies that specifically benefit them, though if in future there are many more of them they might start doing so.

  Nor is there any sign of the intergenerational warfare predicted in the 1990s. After all, older people themselves mostly have families. In a recent study of parents and grown-up children in 11 European countries, Karsten Hank of Mannheim University found that 85% of them lived within 25km of each other and the majority of them were in touch at least once a week.

  Even so, the shift in the centre of gravity to older age groups is bound to have a profound effect on societies, not just economically and politically but in all sorts of other ways too. Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of America’s CSIS, in a thoughtful book called The Graying of the Great Powers, argue that, among other things, the ageing of the developed countries will have a number of serious security implications.

  For example, the shortage of young adults is likely to make countries more reluctant to commit the few they have to military service. In the decades to 2050, America will find itself playing an ever-increasing role in the developed world’s defence effort. Because America’s population will still be growing when that of most other developed countries is shrinking, America will be the only developed country that still matters geopolitically (地缘政治上).

  Ask me in 2020

  There is little that can be done to stop population ageing, so the world will have to live with it. But some of the consequences can be alleviated. Many experts now believe that given the right policies, the effects, though grave, need not be catastrophic. Most countries have recognised the need to do something and are beginning to act.

  But even then there is no guarantee that their efforts will work. What is happening now is historically unprecedented. Ronald Lee, director of the Centre on the Economics and Demography of Ageing at the University of California, Berkeley, puts it briefly and clearly: “We don’t really know what population ageing will be like, because nobody has done it yet. “

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

  1. In its 1994 report, the World Bank argued that the current pension system in most countries could ______.

  [A] not be sustained in the long term

  [B] further accelerate the ageing process

  [C] hardly halt the growth of population

  [D] help tide over the current ageing crisis

  2. What message is conveyed in books like Young vs Old?

  [A] The generation gap is bound to narrow.

  [B] Intergenerational conflicts will intensify.

  [C] The younger generation will beat the old.

  [D] Old people should give way to the young.

  3. One reason why pension and health care reforms are slow in coming is that ______.

  [A] nobody is willing to sacrifice their own interests to tackle the problem

  [B] most people are against measures that will not bear fruit immediately

  [C] the proposed reforms will affect too many people’s interests

  [D] politicians are afraid of losing votes in the next election

  4. The author believes the most effective method to solve the pension crisis is to ______.

  [A] allow people to work longer [C] cut back on health care provisions

  [B] increase tax revenues [D] start reforms right away

  5. The reason why employers are unwilling to keep older workers is that ______.

  [A] they are generally difficult to manage

  [B] the longer they work, the higher their pension

  [C] their pay is higher than that of younger ones

  [D] younger workers are readily available

  6. To compensate for the fast-shrinking labour force, Japan would need ______.

  [A] to revise its current population control policy

  [B] large numbers of immigrants from overseas

  [C] to automate its manufacturing and service industries

  [D] a politically feasible policy concerning population

  7. Why do many women in rich countries compromise by having only one child?

  [A] Small families are becoming more fashionable.

  [B] They find it hard to balance career and family.

  [C] It is too expensive to support a large family.

  [D] Child care is too big a problem for them.

  8. Compared with younger ones, older societies are less inclined to ______________________________.

  9. The predicted intergenerational warfare is unlikely because most of the older people themselves _________________________.

  10. Countries that have a shortage of young adults will be less willing to commit them to ____________________________.  Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  11. [A] The man is the manager of the apartment building.

  [B] The woman is very good at bargaining.

  [C] The woman will get the apartment refurnished.

  [D] The man is looking for an apartment.

  12. [A] How the pictures will turn out. [C] What the man thinks of the shots.

  [B] Where the botanical garden is. [D] Why the pictures are not ready.

  13. [A] There is no replacement for the handle.

  [B] There is no match for the suitcase.

  [C] The suitcase is not worth fixing.

  [D] The suitcase can be fixed in time.

  14. [A] He needs a vehicle to be used in harsh weather.

  [B] He has a fairly large collection of quality trucks.

  [C] He has had his truck adapted for cold temperatures.

  [D] He does routine truck maintenance for the woman.

  15. [A] She cannot stand her boss’s bad temper.

  [B] She has often been criticized by her boss.

  [C] She has made up her mind to resign.

  [D] She never regrets any decisions she makes.

  16. [A] Look for a shirt of a more suitable color and size.

  [B] Replace the shirt with one of some other material.

  [C] Visit a different store for a silk or cotton shirt.

  [D] Get a discount on the shirt she is going to buy.

  17. [A] At a “Lost and Found”. [C] At a trade fair.

  [B] At a reception desk. [D] At an exhibition.

  18. [A] Repair it and move in. [C] Convert it into a hotel.

  [B] Pass it on to his grandson. [D] Sell it for a good price.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  19. [A] Unique descriptive skills. [C] Colourful world experiences.

  [B] Good knowledge of readers’ tastes. [D] Careful plotting and clueing.

  20. [A] A peaceful setting. [C] To be in the right mood.

  [B] A spacious room. [D] To be entirely alone.

  21. [A] They rely heavily on their own imagination.

  [B] They have experiences similar to the characters’.

  [C] They look at the world in a detached manner.

  [D] They are overwhelmed by their own prejudices.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. [A] Good or bad, they are there to stay.

  [B] Like it or not, you have to use them.

  [C] Believe it or not, they have survived.

  [D] Gain or lose, they should be modernised.

  23. [A] The frequent train delays. [C]The food sold on the trains.

  [B] The high train ticket fares. [D] The monopoly of British Railways.

  24. [A] The low efficiency of their operation.

  [B] Competition from other modes of transport.

  [C] Constant complaints from passengers.

  [D] The passing of the new transport act.

  25. [A] They will be de-nationalised. [C] They are fast disappearing.

  [B] They provide worse service. [D] They lose a lot of money.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  Passage One

  Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. [A] The whole Antarctic region will be submerged.

  [B] Some polar animals will soon become extinct.

  [C] Many coastal cities will be covered with water.

  [D] The earth will experience extreme weathers.

  27. [A] How humans are to cope with global warming.

  [B] How unstable the West Antarctic ice sheet is.

  [C] How vulnerable the coastal cities are.

  [D] How polar ice impacts global weather.

  28. [A] It collapsed at least once in the past 1.3 million years.

  [B] It sits firmly on solid rock at the bottom of the ocean.

  [C] It melted at temperatures a bit higher than those of today.

  [D] It will have little impact on sea level when it breaks up.

  29. [A] The West Antarctic region was once an open ocean.

  [B] The West Antarctic ice sheet was about 7,000 feet thick.

  [C] The West Antarctic ice sheet was once floating ice.

  [D] The West Antarctic region used to be warmer than today.

  Passage Two

  Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  30. [A] Whether we can develop social ties on the Internet.

  [B] Whether a deleted photo is immediately removed from the web.

  [C] Whether our blogs can be renewed daily.

  [D] Whether we can set up our own websites.

  31. [A] The number of visits they receive. [C] The files they have collected.

  [B] The way they store data. [D] The means they use to get information.

  32. [A] When the system is down. [C] When the URL is reused.

  [B] When new links are set up. [D] When the server is restarted.

  Passage Three

  Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  33. [A] Some iced coffees have as many calories as a hot dinner.

  [B] Iced coffees sold by some popular chains are contaminated.

  [C] Drinking coffee after a meal is more likely to cause obesity.

  [D] Some brand-name coffees contain harmful substances.

  34. [A] Have some fresh fruit. [C] Take a hot shower.

  [B] Exercise at the gym. [D] Eat a hot dinner.

  35. [A] They could enjoy a happier family life.

  [B] They could greatly improve their work efficiency.

  [C] Many cancer cases could be prevented.

  [D] Many embarrassing situations could be avoided.

  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  注意:此部分试题在答题卡2上作答。

  Psychologists are finding that hope plays a surprisingly vital role in giving people a measurable advantage in realms as (36) _____________ as academic achievement, bearing up in tough jobs and coping with (37) ______________ illness. And, by contrast, the loss of hope is turning out to be a stronger sign that a person may (38) ______________ suicide than other factors long thought to be more likely risks.

  “Hope has proven a powerful predictor of (39) ______________ in every study we’ve done so far,” said Dr. Charles R. Snyder, a psychologist who has devised a (40) ______________ to assess how much hope a person has.

  For example, in research with 3,920 college students, Dr. Snyder and his (41) ______________ found that the level of hope among freshmen at the beginning of their first semester was a more (42) ______________ predictor of their college grades than were their S.A.T. scores or their grade point (43) ______________ in high school, the two measures most commonly used to predict college performance.

  (44)”___________________________________________________________________________________________,” Dr. Snyder said. “When you compare students of equivalent intelligence and past academic achievements, what sets them apart is hope.”

  In devising a way to assess hope scientifically, Dr. Snyder (45)________________________

  _______________________________. “That notion is not concrete enough, and it blurs two key components of hope,” Dr. Snyder said. (46)”_____________________________________________________________________.”

  Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.

  Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.

  Most young boys are trained to believe that men should be strong, tough, cool, and detached. Thus, they learn early to hide vulnerable emotions such as love, joy, and sadness because they believe that such feelings are feminine and imply weakness. Over time, some men become strangers to their own emotional lives. It seems that men with traditional views of masculinity are more likely to suppress outward emotions and to fear emotions, supposedly because such feelings may lead to a loss of composure (镇定). Keep in mind, however, that this view is challenged by some researchers. As with many gender gaps, differences in emotionality tend to be small, inconsistent, and dependent on the situation. For instance, Robertson and colleagues found that males who were more traditionally masculine were more emotionally expressive in a structured exercise than when they were simply asked to talk about their emotions.

  Males’ difficulty with “tender” emotions has serious consequences. First, suppressed emotions can contribute to stress-related disorders. And worse, men are less likely than women to seek help from health professionals. Second, men’s emotional inexpressiveness can cause problems in their relationships with partners and children. For example, men who endorse traditional masculine norms report lower relationship satisfaction, as do their female partners. Further, children whose fathers are warm, loving, and accepting toward them have higher self-esteem and lower rates of aggression and behavior problems. On a positive note, fathers are increasingly involving themselves with their children. And 30 percent of fathers report that they take equal or greater responsibility for their children than their working wives do.

  One emotion males are allowed to express is anger. Sometimes this anger translates into physical aggression or violence. Men commit nearly 90 percent of violent crimes in the United States and almost all sexual assaults.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  47. Most young boys have been trained to believe that men who show tender feelings are considered to be ______________.

  48. Some men believe that if they expressed their emotions openly they might ______________.

  49. According to the author, men who suppress their emotions may develop ______________.

  50. Men who observe traditional masculine norms are said to derive less satisfaction from ______________.

  51. When males get angry, they can become ______________ or even commit violence.

  Section B

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  In the early 20th century, few things were more appealing than the promise of scientific knowledge. In a world struggling with rapid industrialization, science and technology seemed to offer solutions to almost every problem. Newly created state colleges and universities devoted themselves almost entirely to scientific, technological, and engineering fields. Many Americans came to believe that scientific certainty could not only solve scientific problems, but also reform politics, government, and business. Two world wars and a Great Depression rocked the confidence of many people that scientific expertise alone could create a prosperous and ordered world. After World War Ⅱ, the academic world turned with new enthusiasm to humanistic studies, which seemed to many scholars the best way to ensure the survival of democracy. American scholars fanned out across much of the world—with support from the Ford Foundation, the Fulbright program, etc.—to promote the teaching of literature and the arts in an effort to make the case for democratic freedoms.

  In the America of our own time, the great educational challenge has become an effort to strengthen the teaching of what is now known as the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math). There is considerable and justified concern that the United States is falling behind much of the rest of the developed world in these essential disciplines. India, China, Japan, and other regions seem to be seizing technological leadership.

  At the same time, perhaps inevitably, the humanities—while still popular in elite colleges and universities—have experienced a significant decline. Humanistic disciplines are seriously underfunded, not just by the government and the foundations but by academic institutions themselves. Humanists are usually among the lowest-paid faculty members at most institutions and are often lightly regarded because they do not generate grant income and because they provide no obvious credentials (资质) for most nonacademic careers.

  Undoubtedly American education should train more scientists and engineers. Much of the concern among politicians about the state of American universities today is focused on the absence of “real world” education—which means preparation for professional and scientific careers. But the idea that institutions or their students must decide between humanities and science is false. Our society could not survive without scientific and technological knowledge. But we would be equally impoverished (贫困的) without humanistic knowledge as well. Science and technology teach us what we can do. Humanistic thinking helps us understand what we should do.

  It is almost impossible to imagine our society without thinking of the extraordinary achievements of scientists and engineers in building our complicated world. But try to imagine our world as well without the remarkable works that have defined our culture and values. We have always needed, and we still need, both.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  52. In the early 20th century Americans believed science and technology could _______.

  [A] solve virtually all existing problems [C] help raise people’s living standards

  [B] quicken the pace of industrialization [D] promote the nation’s social progress

  53. Why did many American scholars become enthusiastic about humanistic studies after World WarⅡ?

  [A] They wanted to improve their own status within the current education system.

  [B] They believed the stability of a society depended heavily on humanistic studies.

  [C] They could get financial support from various foundations for humanistic studies.

  [D] They realized science and technology alone were no guarantee for a better world.

  54. Why are American scholars worried about education today?

  [A] The STEM subjects are too challenging for students to learn.

  [B] Some Asian countries have overtaken America in basic sciences.

  [C] America is lagging behind in the STEM disciplines.

  [D] There are not enough scholars in humanistic studies.

  55. What accounts for the significant decline in humanistic studies today?

  [A] Insufficient funding. [C] Shortage of devoted faculty.

  [B] Shrinking enrollment. [D] Dim prospects for graduates.

  56. Why does the author attach so much importance to humanistic studies?

  [A] They promote the development of science and technology.

  [B] They help prepare students for their professional careers.

  [C] Humanistic thinking helps define our culture and values.

  [D] Humanistic thinking helps cultivate students’ creativity.

  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Will there ever be another Einstein? This is the undercurrent of conversation at Einstein memorial meetings throughout the year. A new Einstein will emerge, scientists say. But it may take a long time. After all, more than 200 years separated Einstein from his nearest rival, Isaac Newton.

  Many physicists say the next Einstein hasn’t been born yet, or is a baby now. That’s because the quest for a unified theory that would account for all the forces of nature has pushed current mathematics to its limits. New math must be created before the problem can be solved.

  But researchers say there are many other factors working against another Einstein emerging anytime soon.

  For one thing, physics is a much different field today. In Einstein’s day, there were only a few thousand physicists worldwide, and the theoreticians who could intellectually rival Einstein probably would fit into a streetcar with seats to spare.

  Education is different, too. One crucial aspect of Einstein’s training that is overlooked is the years of philosophy he read as a teenager—Kant, Schopenhauer and Spinoza, among others. It taught him how to think independently and abstractly about space and time, and it wasn’t long before he became a philosopher himself.

  “The independence created by philosophical insight is—in my opinion—the mark of distinction between a mere artisan (工匠) or specialist and a real seeker after truth,” Einstein wrote in 1944.

  And he was an accomplished musician. The interplay between music and math is well known. Einstein would furiously play his violin as a way to think through a knotty physics problem.

  Today, universities have produced millions of physicists. There aren’t many jobs in science for them, so they go to Wall Street and Silicon Valley to apply their analytical skills to more practical—and rewarding—efforts.

  “Maybe there is an Einstein out there today,” said Columbia University physicist Brian Greene, “but it would be a lot harder for him to be heard.”

  Especially considering what Einstein was proposing.

  “The actual fabric of space and time curving? My God, what an idea!” Greene said at a recent gathering at the Aspen Institute. “It takes a certain type of person who will bang his head against the wall because you believe you’ll find the solution.”

  Perhaps the best examples are the five scientific papers Einstein wrote in his “miracle year” of 1905. These “thought experiments” were pages of calculations signed and submitted to the prestigious journal Annalen der Physik by a virtual unknown. There were no footnotes or citations.

  What might happen to such a submission today?

  “We all get papers like those in the mail,” Greene said. “We put them in the junk file.”

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  57. What do scientists seem to agree upon, judging from the first two paragraphs?

  [A] Einstein pushed mathematics almost to its limits.

  [B] It will take another Einstein to build a unified theory.

  [C] No physicist is likely to surpass Einstein in the next 200 years.

  [D] It will be some time before a new Einstein emerges.

  58. What was critical to Einstein’s success?

  [A] His talent as an accomplished musician.

  [B] His independent and abstract thinking.

  [C] His untiring effort to fulfill his potential.

  [D] His solid foundation in math theory.

  59. What does the author tell us about physicists today?

  [A] They tend to neglect training in analytical skills.

  [B] They are very good at solving practical problems.

  [C] They attach great importance to publishing academic papers.

  [D] They often go into fields yielding greater financial benefits.

  60. What does Brian Greene imply by saying “... it would be a lot harder for him to be heard” (Lines 1-2, Para. 9)?

  [A] People have to compete in order to get their papers published.

  [B] It is hard for a scientist to have his papers published today.

  [C] Papers like Einstein’s would unlikely get published today.

  [D] Nobody will read papers on apparently ridiculous theories.

  61. When he submitted his papers in 1905, Einstein _______.

  [A] forgot to make footnotes and citations

  [B] was little known in academic circles

  [C] was known as a young genius in math calculations

  [D] knew nothing about the format of academic papers

  Part V Cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  America’s most popular newspaper website today announced that the era of free online journalism is drawing to a close. The New York Times has become the biggest publisher yet to 62 plans for a paywall around its digital offering, 63 the accepted practice that internet users will not pay for news.

  Struggling 64 an evaporation of advertising and a downward drift in street corner sales, The New York Times 65 to introduce a “metered” model at the beginning of 2011. Readers will be required to pay when they have 66 a set number of its online articles per month.

  The decision puts the 159-year-old newspaper 67 the charging side of an increasingly wide chasm (鸿沟) in the media industry. But others, including the Guardian, have said they will not 68 internet readers, and certain papers, 69 London’s Evening Standard, have gone further in abandoning readership revenue by making their print editions 70 .

  The New York Times’s publisher, Arthur Sulzberger, 71 that the move is a gamble: “This is a 72 , to a certain degree, in where we think the web is going.”

  Boasting a print 73 of 995,000 on weekdays and 1.4 million on Sundays, The New York Times is the third bestselling American newspaper, 74 the Wall Street Journal and USA Today. 75 most US papers focus on a single city, The New York Times is among the few that can 76 national scope—as well as 16 bureaus in the New York area, it has 11 offices around the US and 77 26 bureaus elsewhere in the world.

  But 78 many in the publishing industry, the paper is in the grip of a 79 financial crisis. Its parent company, the New York Times Company, has 15 papers, but 80 a loss of $70 million in the nine months to September and recently accepted a $250 million 81 from a Mexican billionaire, Carlos Slim, to strengthen its balance sheet.

  62. [A] set in [C] carry over

  [B] set out [D] carry away

  63. [A] abusing [C] developing

  [B] deducting [D] abandoning

  64. [A] with [C] along

  [B] beside [D] by

  65. [A] engages [C] deliberates

  [B] intends [D] signifies

  66. [A] exceeded [C] assumed

  [B] multiplied [D] revealed

  67. [A] on [C] over

  [B] of [D] up

  68. [A] cost [C] expend

  [B] consume [D] charge

  69. [A] as for [C] such as

  [B] far from [D] by far

  70. [A] reliable [C] applicable

  [B] free [D] easy

  71. [A] resisted [C] acknowledged

  [B] certified [D] appealed

  72. [A] net [C] bet

  [B] kit [D] pit

  73. [A] evaluation [C] circulation

  [B] expansion [D] dimension

  74. [A] behind [C] before

  [B] against [D] within

  75. [A] If [C] Hence

  [B] While [D] Because

  76. [A] ascend [C] lengthen

  [B] announce [D] claim

  77. [A] contributes [C] maintains

  [B] disposes [D] encounters

  78. [A] like [C] from

  [B] beyond [D] through

  79. [A] heavy [C] rough

  [B] crude [D] serious

  80. [A] targeted [C] suffered

  [B] suspended [D] tolerated

  81. [A] asset [C] account

  [B] bill [D] loan

  Part VI Translation (5 minutes)

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  注意: 此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答,只需写出译文部分。

  82. There is no denying that you __________________________________ (越仔细越好) in dealing with this matter.

  83. Only when I reached my thirties _____________________________(我才意识到读书是不能被忽视的).

  84. Much _________________________________(使研究人员感到惊讶), the outcome of the experiment was far better than they had expected.

  85. Oh, my, I can’t find my key; ______________________________(我一定是把它忘在哪儿了).

  86. I ____________________________________________ (宁愿加入你们去做义工) than go to the beach for a holiday.

试题答案:

Part Ⅰ

Writing

My View on University Ranking

In recent years, all kinds of University Ranking Lists can be found on some educational websites, or newspapers. The ranking standards also vary. These lists have great influence on students. They are even becoming the only scale to evaluate the colleges and universities.

People hold different views toward this phenomenon. Some believe that these lists help the students a lot, especially for those who will choose their university. While some other protest vigorously. In their points, the list is really ridiculous and harmful. In my view, the university ranking may have its own reference values, but its disadvantages overweigh its values.

For those university-students-to-be, they are supposed to choose the school according to his or her own situation, but not the so-called Ranking List. What’s more, how about the university students? How do they feel about themselves when they see the ranking? The list may become some intangible shackles for them if their own school ranks poorly.

In a nutshell, there is no easy method to rank these universities, but the Ranking, only helps students ignore the essentials, namely, their ninety-nine percent perspiration.

此次六级作文的自由度很大,看似给出了提纲,实际上具体的观点全靠个人发挥。第一段需要点明大学排名这个现象,第二段需要铺陈不同人的观点,第三段要陈述自己的观点。

大学排名这个题目,实际上涉及到了对了大学的理解,对于大学排名标准的理解,以及对于大学排名的目的的理解。而这件事更加离不开中国具体的国情,新中国50年代人至今受教育的情况,90后择校的情况,目前大学的情况,考生发挥的空间可以纵横数十年的教育史,并且可以深入探讨教育的本质。

当然,对于大多数考生来说,凑满150个字万岁!那么,模板又可以派上用场了。

模板一

1.Different people have different views on——

2. Some people perfer,——

3. Others tend to, ——

4.As to me, I agree with / to ——

(1)开门见山直入主体,表明对某事人们的不同看法。

(2)表明一部分人的看法。

(3)另一部分的看法。

(4)作者的看法

我们这里放出来的这篇文章,语言流畅,观点清晰,多处表述有闪光点。

Reading Comprehension(Skimming and Scanning)

1.A not be sustained in the long term

解析:关键字1994对应第一段第三行,题干中unsustainable即选项A中sustained的反义表达方式。选择A。

2.B Intergenerational conflicts will intensify.

解析:从书名定位到原文第二段,heading for the rock, the cleaner, 都暗示了两代人之间的问题,最后的warfare则一目了然地指出了该矛盾。

3.D politicians are afraid of losing votes in the next election

解析:首先需要理解题目意图,即为何养老机制改革迟迟不能进行,然后定位到文章第四段,其实只要从段落中politician这一关键字就能选定D选项。

4.A allow people to work longer

解析:从题干中the most effective method找到第五段第三句原话,直接选择A选项。

5.D younger workers are readily available

解析:题目中employer为关键字,找到第六段,该段看似没有直接提到为什么雇主不愿意雇佣old workers,但从其不断分析新涌现出来的劳动力替代者,可以总结的出D选项,即年轻劳动力的供给已足以满足企业需求。

6.B large numbers of immigrants from overseas

解析:这道题间接考察了学生变换思维的能力,Japan在文中一时难以找到,但其所代表的发达国家群体developed countries却出现在了第七段,而该段恰恰揭示了发达国家靠移民劳动力寻求养老机制危机一时的缓解的举措。

7.B They find it hard to balance career and family.

解析:compromise关键字找到第九段,关键字出现的句子前一句就是B选项。

8.be innovative and take risks than younger ones

解析:题目中old societies关键字对应到倒数第六段第三行,题目中的less inclined正好与原文中的more strongly disinclined形成对照,所以答案只需摘录之后的原文即可,即take risks than younger ones.

9.mostly have families

解析:题目中关键字intergenerational warfare对应到原文倒数第五段。第二句直接对第一句做出了解释,摘录即可。

10.military service

解析:要理解题目中less willing to 的含义,即不情愿,这样定位到倒数第三段第一句的reluctant, commit sth. to sth. ,空格内需要填写名词,参照原文,即military service.

Listening Comprehension

Section A

11. What can we infer from the conversation?

【答案】A The man is the manager of the apartment building

【解析】从对话中看出女士在找apartment building,不是男士。因此选A。

12. What is the woman eager to know?

【答案】B How the pictures will turn out.

【解析】女士想知道的是if the shots I took are as good as I thought. 照片是不是和她想的异样好。这里shots指照片。turn out指照片拍出来的效果。因此选B。

13. What does the man mean?

【答案】C The suitcase can be fixed in time.

【解析】男士说到find a handle后面提到 but that shouldn’t take too long说明不是没有handle可以匹配。因此排除A,B。

14. What do we learn about the man from the conversation?

【答案】B He needs a vehicle to be used in harsh weather.

【解析】男士说到truck需要operate for long periods of time in very cold temperatures,因此选择选项B。very cold temperatures对应harsh weather.

15. What do we learn about the woman?

【答案】A She has made up her mind to resign.

【解析】从文中女士强硬的口气I could no longer live with…可以看出她下定决心。因此选择A。

16. What does the women want to do?

【答案】D Replace the shirt with one of some other material.

【解析】女士首先提到exchange the shirt,后面又解释了原因allergic to wool,从男士的回答也可以看出换成别的材质。因此选择D。

17. Where does this conversation most probably take place?

【答案】D At a “Lost and Found”

【解析】男士首先问Did anyone happen to turn in a new handbag?,女士又问了他handbag的详细信息,可见是在失物招领处,选D。

18. What does the man plan to do with his old house?

【答案】C Convert in into a hotel

【解析】but后面是真正意图: turning it into a guest house。guest house 意为宾馆,因此选C。

19. What is the key to write a good classical detective story according to the man?

【答案】D Careful plotting and clueing.

【解析】对话中提到it must be so carefully plotted and so carefully clued,对应D选项。

20. What does the man mainly need when working on a book?

【答案】D To be entirely alone.

【解析】对话中can’t even bare anybody else, be completely alone都说明该作家需要独立的写作空间,因此选择D。

21. What does the man say about writers?

【答案】C They look at the world in a detached manner.

【解析】关键词detachment 分离。作家提到作者的经历和写作。虽然说道some experiences overwhelm everyone, 但是后面的but暗示了答案,stand aside、detachment都对应了C选项。

22. What does the woman say about British railways?

【答案】B Like it or not, you have to use them.

【解析】在对话一开始,女士就提到了There’s only one railway system, if you don't like a particular railway, you can’t go and use another. 因为只有一条铁路,即使不喜欢,也只能乘坐,换句话说不论喜欢与否都得用它。因此选择B。

23. What do some people who write to the man complain about?

【答案】D The monopoly of British Railways.

【解析】对话中谈及monopoly,铁路垄断,因此选D。其他选项均未涉及。

24. What does the man say threatens the existence of railways?

【答案】B Competition from other modes of transport.

【解析】对话中modes of transport are all around对应选项B。

25. What does the man say about railways in other countries?

【答案】D They lose a lot of money.

【解析】男士以德、法两国铁路为例,每年铁路都有大量亏损。因此选择D。而B选项中disappearing仅仅是美国的情况。

Section B

Passage One

文章解析:

本文是一篇地理科学类文章,有点难度,关键是对一些专有名词的把握。文章开始先指出全球变暖带来最主要的威胁是极地冰盖的融化,并给出了相应的事实和数据加以证明。接着更多例子表明南极洲的冰盖在过去的130万年间至少坍塌过一次。相关高等学府的学者和科学家也相继用实验证明南极洲西部曾是一片汪洋。最后引用Herman Engleheart的话,再次提醒我们,西南极洲大冰原很可能再次融化消失。

其实按常理来说,如果听力文章比较有难度的话,题目的难度相对应会降低。所以大家在遇到此类题型时不必惊慌。提取关键信息、边听边记笔记,运用好背景知识等就能把题目做出来。平时也要注意扩大阅读范围,增长见识。关于环境保护和全球变暖之类的文章屡见不鲜,要求考生在这方面要引起足够的重视。

难点词汇:

West Antarctic ice sheet西南极洲大冰原 ice shelf 冰架 anchored 固定的

fossil 化石 microscopic marine plants 海洋微生物 geological 地质的

答案及解析:

26. What is one of the most frightening threats of global warming according to the passage?

【解析】C) Many coastal cities will be covered with water.

细节题。本题不难,从听力开头即可听到 “raising sea level so much that coastal cities from New York to Los Angles to Shanghai will be flooded” 所以选C选项。

27. What do scientists disagree on?

【解析】B) How unstable the West Antarctic ice sheet is.

细节题。本题不难。注意关键句 “but Antarctic experts disagree strongly on just how unstable it is” 即可得出答案。

28. What is the latest information revealed about the West Antarctic ice sheet?

【解析】A)It collapsed at least once during the past 1.3 million years.

细节题。注意提取关键信息 “new evidence reveals that all or most of the Antarctic ice sheet collapsed at least once during the past 1.3 million years” 所以选A选项。

29. What the scientists’ latest findings suggest?

【解析】A) The West Antarctic region was once a open ocean.

细节题。听力最后的例子说明了这一点“which suggest that the region was once open ocean not solid ice”, 而其他选项都不是最新的发现。

Passage Two

30 B)Whether a deleted photo is immediately removed from the web.

【解析】听力一开始作者就建议我们尝试删除自己上传的照片“Take a photo and upload it to Facebook, then after a day or so, note what the URL link to the picture is and then delete it.”,由此可知应该选B。

31 B) The way they store data.

【解析】“Why do "deleted" photos stick around so long? The problem relates to the way data is stored on large websites”,从这句话可知图片之所以不能立即删除跟它们存储的方式有关。

32 C) When the URL is reused.

【解析】“In the case of Facebook, the company says data may hang around until the URL in question is reused”,从这句话可知只有URL被再次用到才会被删除。

Passage Three

33. A

解析:第一段原文可以找到对应句子,即some iced coffees contain as many calories as a hot dinner.

34. B

解析:第一段原文中有对应语句,即Better skip dinner or hit the gym afterwards.

35. C

解析:在此句中,“The WCRF has estimated that 19,000 cancers a year in Britain could be prevented…”,关键词prevented可以得知答案为C选项。

Section C

36. diverse

37. tragic

38. commit

39. outcome

40. scale

41. colleagues

42. accurate

43. averages

45. Students with high hope set themselves higher goals and know how to work to attain them,

46. went beyond the simple notion that hope is merely the sense that everything will turn out all right.

47. Having hope means believing you have both the will and the way to accomplish your goals, whatever they may be.

Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)

Section A

47.

答案:feminine and weak

解析:文中提到…because they believe that such feelings are feminine and imply weakness. 要填在to be后面就应该转化成形容词形式。

48.

答案:lose composure

解析:文中提到may lead to a loss of composure。要用在主语后面就要把loss变成动词lose。

49.

答案:stress-related disorders

解析:文中提到can contribute to stress-related disorder。

50.

答案:their relationship with partners

解析:文中提到…report lower relationship satisfaction as do their female partners.故这里要重新组合转换表达形式。

51.

答案:aggressive

解析:文中提到…into physically aggression or violence,而此处在become后就要用aggression的形容词形式。

Section B

Passage One

52) A solve virtually existing all problems

细节题。抓住时间点“In the early 2oth century” 我们从第一句 “offer solutions to almost every problem” 便可知道答案。选择A选项。

53) D They realized that science and technology alone were no guarantee for a better world.

推论题。 我们首先比较容易排除A和C项。B项具有迷惑性,关键是看“the stability of a society depended heavily on humanistic study”这个选项仔细看就会发现说得太绝对了,社会的问题主要是靠人文主义的研究?显然不是很恰当。我们从下面那句也可以推断出选D比较恰当。 “Two world wars and a Great Depression rocked the confidence of many people that scientific expertise alone could create a prosperous and ordered world.”

54) C America is lagging behind in the STEMS disciplines.

细节题。主要在第二段里找答案。从段落后两句“There is considerable and justified concern that the United States is falling behind much of the rest of the developed world in these essential disciplines.” 我们可以推断出是选C选项。 A和D选项比较容易排除。不选B选项,因为文章中 “India, China, Japan, and other regions seem to be seizing technological leadership.” seem to 表明这几个国家只是有种趋势,但还没有have overtaken。

55) A Insufficient funding.

细节题。我们在第三段里可以找到答案。 从“…are seriously underfunded…” “Humanists are usually among the lowest-paid faculty members…” 这些信息中,可以很快知道是A选项。

56) C Humanistic thinking helps cultivate and define our culture and values.

细节题。本题不难。作者为什么如此着重人文主义的研究,其他三项都是非常具体的,且都不是重点。只有C选项符合。且我们从最后这一句 “But try to imagine our world as well without the remarkable works that have defined our culture and values.” 及作者的语气可以更加确定是C选项。

Passage Two

57. D. It will be some time before a new Einstein emerges.

解析:这道题针对开头两节。A和C答案比较容易排除,A说爱因斯坦把数学推到了一个极限,C说在将来的两百年都不会有物理学家超过爱因斯坦,这两个都明显不合文章大意。B答案说需要一个爱因斯坦才能建立一种大一统理论,属于过度推理,并且细节性太强了。D答案是正确答案,很多同学不敢选D的原因是,因为有些科学家们认为爱因斯坦或许还没有诞生或许还是个小婴儿,他们认为这样一来就有可能爱因斯坦已经存在了。但是这句话里面的爱因斯坦是代表伟大的科学家的意思,那么这个题目选择D就是正确的,大家都同意的是像爱因斯坦那样伟大的科学家还需要一定的时间才会出现。

58. B. His independent and abstract thinking

解析:B他独立与抽象思维能力。这一段是文章中间部分的内容概括。根据上下文意思推断,爱因斯坦成功的原因,不能说是他在音乐方面的天分,也不能说他的努力或者他在数学方面的深厚基础,因此答案选择B。

59. D. They often go into fields yielding greater financial benefits.

解析:正确答案选择D。这段文章是在问今天的物理学家们的情况, A说他们缺乏分析能力,B说他们擅长处理实际问题,C说他们重视发表文章,都是从根据文章细节中捏造出来的错误选项。D是对于文章内容的一个总结概括,数量众多的物理学家进入了更有经济利益的领域。

60. D. Nobody will read papers on apparently ridiculous theories.

解析:正确答案选择D。结合Greene讲的话,他说What an idea!还说是需要把头往墙上撞的人才会相信能找到个解决方案呢!说明内容实在是比较荒诞。

61. B. was little known in academic circles

解析:正确答案选择B,说的是爱因斯坦在学术圈里面默默无闻,跟原文里面的“by a virtual unknown”相对应。有迷惑性的选择项是D,因为文中提到了爱因斯坦的文章没有配上脚注和注释footnote and citations.但是D选择项是说,爱因斯坦不懂得论文的格式,这个属于过度推理了。

Cloze

62 B set out set out plans表示制定计划

63 D abandoning abandon 放弃,once unshakeable orthodoxy表示曾经不可动摇的做法,也就是现在要放弃了。

64 A with struggle with表示同…斗争,介词搭配,这里表示设法应对广告收入和报纸销售量下降的局面。

65 B intends intend to表示打算…,从后面的at the beginning of 2011,可知还没有这么做,只是计划或者打算这么做。

66 A exceeded 超过,是说当用户每月阅读文章超过一定量时就要收费。

67 A on 和side搭配,on the side of …表示拥护…;站在…一边。

68 D charge 本词在文章中多次出现,charge sb表示向某人收费。

69 C such as 表示举例,从后面举London's Evening Standard作为例子,可知应该选such as.

70 B free 前面提到abandon readership revenue,即放弃读者收益,由此可知应该是make print editions free.

71 C acknowledged 表示承认,这里表示Arthur Sulzberger承认这么做是一种赌博。

72 C bet 打赌,赌注,从前面的gamble可知应该选bet。

73 C circulation 发行量,从后面的数量可知应该选circulation。

74 A behind NYT排名第三,即排在the Wall Street Journal and USA Today后面。

75 B While while在这里表示对比,从上下文可知NYT与美国其他报纸不同。

76 D claim 声称,宣称,这里是说NYT声称自己是全国范围的报纸。

77 C maintains 维持,运营,即NYT还在世界其他地方运营着26个办公室。

78 A like 从下文可知NYT和印刷行业的其他公司一样,也受到金融危机的影响,所以选like,表示同…一样。

79 D serious 严重的,考察形容词与名词的搭配,从下文的数据可知遭受严重经济损失。

80 C suffered 遭受,suffer a loss遭受损失,常见搭配。

81 D loan 贷款,前文提到公司损失了很多钱,所以需要从别处借钱来补充资金。

Translation

82. There is no denying that you ___________(越仔细越好) in dealing with this matter.

解析:can never be too careful / can not be too careful

【考点解释】本题考查“越仔细越好”“再…也不为过”的固定搭配,即can never be too/can not be too + adj.

【原句精释】无可否认,处理这件事,越仔细越好。

83. Only when I reached my thirties __________________________ (我才意识到读书是不能被忽视的)

解析:did I realize that reading cannot be neglected

did I realize that reading is unignorable

【考点解释】本题考查由only when 引起的局部倒装。当only when置于句首,主句用局部倒装,即将助动词置于主语前面。only when引导句子时态为过去时(reached),为保持时态一致,主句助动词用did;注意被动语态的使用,reading与neglect为被动关系。同时也可以使用be+adj的结构。

【原句精释】直到三十岁,我才意识不能忽视读书。

84. Much ___________________ (使研究人员感到惊讶),the outcome of the experiment was far better than they had expected.

解析:to the researchers’ surprise

【考点解释】本题考查固定搭配 to one’s surprise 使…惊讶的是…

【原句精释】让研究人员大为惊讶的是,实验结果比他们的预计好得多。

85. Oh, my, I can’t find my key; __________________________(我一定是把它放在哪儿了)。

解析:I must have left / put it somewhere.

【考点解释】本题考查对过去事情的肯定的猜测,即must have+过去分词,leave与put都有放置的意思,但leave强调遗忘在…,较之put,leave更贴合题意。

【原句精释】天啊,我找不到钥匙。我一定是把它放在哪儿了。

86.I ________________________(宁愿加入你们去做义工)than go to the beach for a holiday.

解析:would rather join you as a volunteer

【考点解释】考查结构“宁愿…也不愿…”, 因题干中已存在“than go”的结构,只能使用 “would rather do rather than do”。加入… join sb

【原句精释】我宁愿加入你们去做义工,也不愿到海边去度
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