外媒:美国精英谈“不要让中国赢得绿色竞争”

cathy0301 2020-01-072714阅读
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Don’t let China win the green race America should be leading the way on clean energy, not falling behind.

  约翰•克里 罗•康纳

  Washington is consumed with discussion about the consequences of a rising China, from trade disputes to their aggression in the South China Sea. There’s comparably little debate about how the United States can shape the environment into which China is rising, let alone the actions we can take at home to ensure America’s values prevail. We see more focus on tariffs than building wind turbines and solar farms. Americans should not be spectators in shaping our own future, or the world’s. We should pledge that by the end of the next decade, America will surpass China and win the clean energy race.

  华盛顿沉浸在一个崛起的中国会带来什么影响的讨论,话题从贸易争端到他们在南海的挑衅。然而美国如何能塑造中国正在崛起的环境却相对较少争论,更不消说我们在国内采取什么行动以确保美国的价值观胜出。我们看到更多关注于关税而非建设风机和太阳能上。美国人不应该成为塑造我们自己或世界未来的旁观者。我们应该保证在下一个十年结束时,美国将超越中国并赢得这场清洁能源竞争。

  The United States isn’t winning the clean energy race today. In many ways, we aren’t even trying. China is becoming an energy superpower. Earlier this year, the Global Commission on the Geopolitics of Energy Transformation reported that China became the world’s largest producer, exporter, and installer of solar panels, wind turbines, batteries and electric vehicles, followed by Japan and Germany. The United States ranks fourth.

  今天,美国没有赢得这场清洁能源竞争。在很多方面,我们甚至没去尝试。中国正成为一个能源超级大国。今年早些时候,能量转换地缘政治全球委员会报告,中国成为世界上最大的太阳能板、风机、蓄电池和电动车生产商、出口商和安装者,紧随其后的是日本和德国,美国位居第四。

  China surpassed the United States for the lead in renewable energy technology, too, with 150,000 patents – making up 30 percent of the world’s total. America is second with just over 100,000 patents, while Japan and the European Union follow with about 75,000 each.

  中国也超越美国引领可再生能源技术,有15万项专利,占全世界总数的30%。美国屈居第二,仅有超过10万项专利,日本和欧盟紧跟,各自大约7.5万项。

  In 2015, China surpassed the United States to become the largest electric vehicle market and is on pace to dominate production for the next 20 years. Chinese electric vehicles account for 60 percent of global sales: 876,000 vehicles were produced last year compared with 361,000 in America.

  2015年,中国超越美国成为最大的电动车市场,并且一步一步地要支配下个二十年的生产。中国电动车占全球销售量的60%:去年生产了87.6万辆,而美国36.1万辆。

  The Chinese is doing things America is afraid to do. They offer citizens large subsidies for purchasing electric vehicles from state-owned companies. Municipalities waive fees for electric vehicle owners. The city of Shenzhen, which has a population of 12.5 million people, runs a 100 percent electric vehicle bus fleet and is, by fiat, converting 22,000 taxis to electric vehicles.

  中国人正在做美国害怕做的事情。他们给予公民购买国有企业产电动车大量补贴。市政当局对电动车买家免除费用。拥有1250万人口的深圳市运营着100%电动车巴士车队,并且下令将2.2万辆的士车转换成电动车。

  High-speed rail also is integral to China’s strategy. It has the largest high-speed railway in the world, with 19,000 miles of track and most major cities connected by the network. The United States has less than 500 miles. America’s fastest train takes 19 to 22 hours from New York to Chicago, whereas the same distance in China takes four-and-a-half hours.

  高速铁路也是中国战略不可或缺的一部分。它拥有世界上最大的高速铁路网,共1.9万英里轨道,绝大多数主要城市都有高铁网络连接。美国高速铁路不到500英里。美国最快的火车从纽约到芝加哥需要19-22小时,而在中国同样的距离花费4.5小时。

  Unless America has a strategic plan, China may become the OPEC of the 21st-century energy industry. It’s folly to replace a world order too dependent on Middle East oil with one that’s too dependent on Chinese technology.

  除非美国有一套战略规划,否则中国可能成为二十一世纪能源行业的欧佩克。一个太依赖中东石油的世界秩序由太依赖中国技术取代太愚蠢了。

  America can mobilize around a national strategy to lead the world in clean technology that will attract bipartisan support from both coasts and the heartland.

  美国可以动员一项引领世界清洁能源技术的国家战略,它将赢得来自沿海和内陆的跨党派支持。

  How? Just think about the options it could explore. America could expand the electric vehicle tax credit, making it fully refundable at the time of purchase. That means a person wouldn’t have to wait a year for their tax refund but would receive money back immediately when buying an electric vehicle. If these credits are tied to domestic manufacturing, private sector jobs will return to auto industry towns.

  如何?想想可以探索的方法。美国可以扩大电动车税收抵免,购买时全部退还。这意味着一个人不会为退税等上一年,而是在购买电动车时立即收回款项。如果这些税收抵免与国内制造捆绑在一起,那么私营行业的工作将回流到汽车业重镇。

America could add two zeros to the end of the budget for ARPA-E, the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, taking it from a few hundred million to tens of billions of dollars. It could double the budgets for the Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Science. The aggregate current level for these two would increase to around $9 billion. Each supports renewable energy research and these are critical for the type of disruptive innovation necessary to meet the scale and urgency of the climate challenge.

  美国可以在美国能源部能源高级研究计划署的预算后面添加两个零,从几亿增加到几百亿美元。它可以让能源部的能效与新能源办公室和科学办公室的预算翻倍。这两个办公室现有总预算将增加到约90亿美元。每一个办公室都支持新能源研究,这对颠覆性创新至关重要,而这些颠覆性创新对于应对气候挑战的规模和紧迫性十分有必要。

  The United States could use an infrastructure bank to finance a high-speed rail system to relieve congestion, reduce pollution, increase energy efficiency, and provide alternatives to regional air travel. Although the California experience shows how local zoning concerns and cost overruns present challenges, the lessons learned show that the country needs a clear road map before implementation, rather than an ad hoc approach.

  美国可以使用基础设施银行来为高速铁路系统提供资金,以缓解交通堵塞、减少污染、提高能效和为区域性空中旅行提供替代方案。虽然加州的经验表明区域规划担忧及超资带来挑战,但获得的教训也表明在实施之前这个国家需要一个清晰的路线图,而不是一项临时措施。

  America could match China’s annual investment in public-private partnerships. Whereas China spent $126 billion on renewable energy investments in 2016, America spent just over $40 billion. It needs more examples like the Department of Energy working with the Breakthrough Energy Coalition, a group launched by Richard Branson and 20 other leaders committed to making renewable energy technologies less expensive and more commercially viable. Last month, a Bill Gates-backed start-up achieved a breakthrough using artificial intelligence and mirrors. This new technology harnesses the sun’s energy to create heat hot enough for carbon-free industrial processes, like making concrete. Another place for investment is in electric car batteries, which need a range of closer to a thousand miles than a few hundred. Home energy storage systems and solar cells must also become smaller and more convenient.

  美国可以媲美中国的PPP项目年度投资。2016年,中国花费1260亿美元在可再生能源投资上,美国只花了400多亿美元。需要更多的像能源部与突破性能源合作联盟合作的案例,该团体由理查德•布兰森和其他二十位领导人发起,致力于使再生能源技术更便宜、更具商业活力。上月,一家比尔•盖茨支持的创业公司在使用人工智能和镜像方面取得突破。该新技术利用太阳能源产生温度足以用于无碳工业过程的热量,如制作混凝土等。另外一个投资的地方是电动车电池,它需要接近一千英里而非几百英里的车程。家庭能源储存系统和太阳能电池也必须变得更小、更便捷。

  Energy is the largest market the world has ever seen. Four to five billion people consume energy today. That figure will increase to nine billion in 30 years. Today we have 2.3 million clean energy jobs. A national strategy focused on winning the clean energy race can create millions of new jobs, considering solar panel installer and wind turbine technician jobs are already expected to grow at around 60 percent over the next decade.

  能源是世界上从未有过的最大市场。今天,四十到五十亿人消费能源。三十年后这个数会增加到九十亿。今天,我们有230万个清洁能源工作。鉴于太阳能光板安装工和风机技师工种有望在下个十年增长大约60%,据此,致力于赢得这场清洁能源竞争的国家战略可以创造数以百万计的新工作。

  America can claim credit for many of the last century’s greatest contributions to humanity. We did not lead simply by opposing great powers, but by setting the standard for scientific and technological advances. America’s China strategy should be premised on becoming the undisputed global leader in the new energy market, and the nation and all others seek to emulate in tackling the climate change crisis.

  美国可以宣称上世纪对人类做出的许多最伟大贡献。我们领先不是简单地依靠压制大国,而是通过设定科技发展的标准。美国的中国策略应该以成为新能源市场无可争议的全球领导者为前提,并且美国和所有其他国家寻求竞争来解决气候变化危机。

  JOHN KERRY was a Democratic senator from Massachusetts before becoming secretary of state in the Obama administration. RO KHANNA is a Democratic member of the House of Representatives from California’s 17th District, which includes Silicon Valley

  约翰•克里在成为美国奥巴马政府国务卿之前曾是一名来自马萨诸塞州的民主党参议员。罗•康纳是来自加利福尼亚州第17区的众议院民主党议员,硅谷位于该区。

  译注:

  1. 本文选自纽约时报国际版 英文作者John Kerry Ro Khanna2019年12月10日“观点 ”专栏。

  2. 对原文略有改动。

来源:新东方网

作者:翻译:靳德斌


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