英语六级语法总复习:从SodoI谈起

tudougege 2013-12-195255阅读
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两人对话,乙方对甲方的问话常可用简短回答作出 反应。例如: Do you like it? -- Yes,I do.这同样适用于陈述句的场合: You worry too much.-- No,I don't.在后一种情况下,乙方也能"So+do+主语"之类 的结构表示看法。
  例如甲方说"我喜欢苹果",乙方 如果想表示"我也喜欢苹果",英语可以说:
  A:I like apples.
  B:So do I.(= I like apples,too。)
  这里的so在意义上相当于in the same way,即同样、 也那样,作简短反应表示同样看法时常用之。
  本文 就诸如此类的四种结构略作介绍。
  1."So+do+主语"结构 在简短反应中表示"我也如此"或"另外一个人也 如此"时,也就是主语不同于上文的主语以及上 文并无可用于构成倒装的动词(即操作词时), 可用此结构。例如: A:I like playing football. B:So do I./So does my brother./So did my father. 如果上文有可用于构成倒装的动词时,则用相同 的动词或根据不同人称用同类的动词。 I must go -- So must I. John can speak French.--So can I. I've got a new car.--So has John. She is clever.-- So is he.
  2."Neither/Nor + do + 主语" 结构 如果上文表示否定意义而在简短反应中表示同样 看法时,可用此结构。例如,甲方说I can't swim, 乙方如果想表示"我也不会游泳",英语可以说 Neither can I. / Nor can I(=I can't either)。
  又例如: A:He doesn't speak French. B:Neither/Nor do I. Neither/Nor does my brother. Neither/Nor does my father. 关于以上两种结构,有两点说明:
  第一,能用动词缩略形式。例如: I'm going to London. ---So's John。(is) I've been to New York. ---So's John.(has) I'd have gone to Tokyo if I could.---So'd John.(would) John hasn't got a visa. ---Nor've do I.(have) Jim and Mary aren't acting in the college play. ---Neither's Peter.(is)
  第二,上述甲乙对话如用and连成一句可出自一人 之口。例如: John can speak French and so can't I. John can't speak French and neither/ nor can I. John speaks French and so do I. John doesn't speak French and neither/nor do I. 上述斜体部分相当于and I can, too / and I can't either / and I do too / and I don't either 的意思。
  3."So+主语+do"结构 在简短反应中,对别人所说的情况加以肯定以及 主语与上文主语相同时,可用此结构,注意,这 里不用倒装同序;so 的意义相当于indeed, certainly,即"不错"、"对了"。例如: A:John smokes a lot. B: So he does.(=He smokes a lot indeed.) 这类简短反应往往带有说话人的惊奇口吻。例如: A:Look,it's raining! B: So it is. 在这里,So it is的含义是 You are right! It is raining;and this surprises me.
  4."Nor+主语十do"结构
  如果乙方想对甲方所否定的情况加以肯定时,可用此 结构(注:在这类结构中,neither少见)例如: Look! It isn't raining any more!
  ---Nor it is!
  This cup hasn't got a handle!
  ---Nor it has!
  四种结构的介绍就到此为止。下面从L.A. Hill所著 An Intermediate Refresher course 一书摘引一则 对话供初学者观察上述四种结构在上下文中的使用 情况。
  Derothy: Look it's raining!
  Donald: So it is! I'm not going out this afternoon now.
  Dorothy:Nor am I. You and I haven't got anything to do this evening, you know.
  Donald: Nor we have! We can go to the cinema then.
  Derothy: So we can.
  Donald: There's a good film on at the "Metropole".
  Derothy: So there is! Shall we go?
  Denald: Yes, let's.
  Derothy: But it doesn't start until 6 o'clock.
  Denald: Nor it does! I thought there was an early performance too.
  Dorothy:So did I . Well, I don't want to sit about doing nothing until 6.
  Donald: Nor do I …Oh, look, it isn't raining any more.
  Dorothy: Nor it is! I'd like to go for a walk.
  Donald: So would I…OH, who's that coming up the road?
  Dorothy: It's the postman.
  Donald: So it is! He's very early. The evening newspaper hasn't even arrived yet.
  Dorothy: Nor it has! That's late today. I hope the postman has a letter for us.
  Donald: So do I - but I don't want any more bills!
  Dorothy: Nor do I!
  Donald: Here he is…there's a parcel for us!
  Dorothy: So there is! I wonder who sent it.
  Donald: So do I. I wasn't expecting a parcel.
  Dorothy: Nor was I. Oh, it's from Mother - they are woolen clothes for the baby!
  Donald: So they are! She must have knitted them herself!
  Dorothy: There's no letter in the parcel.
  Donald: Nor there is! I find that strange.
  Dorothy: So do I. She always writes to us on Sundays. Oh, well, perhaps we shall get a letter from her tomorrow.

本文编辑:tudougege

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